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Thoracic Spine vertebrae from the middle part of the vertebral column between cervical spine and lumbar spine. In humans, there are twelve thoracic vertebrae and have an intermediate size between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. Size ascends toward the lumbar vertebrae, and the lower ones are much broader than the upper ones. They are discriminated by the presence of facets at the sides of bodies for articulation with the head of the rib and transverse processes, with the exception of the eleventh and twelfth, for hinging with tubercle of the ribs. By regions and ascending size, the human vertebrae are numbered T1-T12, the first (T1) is closer to the scalp, and the other goes down the spine in the lumbar region.
These are the common features of the second to the eighth vertebra. The first and the ninth to twelfth vertebrates contain certain characteristics and are described below. The bodies in the mid-thoracic are heart-shaped and wide in the pre-posterior, as in the transverse direction. At the extremities of the thoracic area, they resemble those of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae.
It is a little thicker than the front, level up and down, protruding from the front, deeply hollow at the back and slightly curved towards the sides and forward. They present on both sides two facets, one above the root of the pedicle and the other near the front of the inferior spine. are covered with cartilage in a fresh state and when the vertebrates are connected to each other, they form with the fibrocartilage inter-meshing oval surfaces for the articulation of the rib heads.
The processes are directed back and slightly upward and the lower spines are large and deeper than any other area of the spine. The laminae are wide, thick and toothed – that is. underground vertebrates such as roof tiles and connect to the benches to surround and defend the spinal cord.
The inter-vertebral foremen are small and round, with two on each level, one for right and one for left nerve root. The shape of the spine is such that there is the large opening behind the spine, also known as the spinal canal. It contains and protects the spinal cord of the chest.
The spinous process is long, triangular in the coronal plane, directed inferiorly oblique starting from the lamina and ending at the end of the tubercle. These processes overlap from the fifth to the eighth but are less inclined in the upper and lower directions. The upper articular processes are a thin bone process that extends upward from the intersections of the pedicle and the lamina. their articular veneers are substantially flat and are directed back and side and upwards.
Lower articulating processes are fused completely with the lamina, but slightly above their lower borders. their facets are forward and a little up and down. Transverse processes are the result of the arch behind the upper articular processes and the pedicles. They are thick, strong and long in size, directed back and forth, each ending at a clubbed end with a slightly concave surface for pivotal connection to the rib tubercle. Respiratory systems in different animal categories have some common features. There is a large surface for the exchange of gas that separates the blood from air or water. The barrier filtering the blood from air or water is thin – about 50 times thinner than air paper – providing minimal resistance to gas transport. The flow of oxygen through the barrier separating the blood from air or water is effected by diffusion under a pressure gradient from a high point of PO2 to a lower PO2. This gradient is present throughout the respiratory system.
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