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Rise of Empires in Africa

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1200-1600s -Monomotapa empire had risen and declined, it was thought to have been associated with Great Zimbabwe and to have been convoluted in gold mining and international trade.1830s – Ndebele people were fleeing Zulu violence and Boer migration in present-day South Africa they moved north and inhabited what becomes known as Matabeleland.1830-1890s – European hunters, traders, and missionaries toured the area from the south. A great example can be Cecil John Rhodes.

1889 – Rhodes’ British South Africa Company (BSA) got a British order to colonize Southern Rhodesia.1890 – Pioneers of white settlers came from the south where the future capital Harare was.1893 – Ndebele revolting against the BSA rule is trampled.

1922 – BSA administration ended, the white minority settles on a self-government.1930 – Land Apportionment Act confined black access to land, driving the colored minority into wage labor.1930-1960s – Black opposition to colonial rule blooms. Appearance in the 1960s of nationalist groups – the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (Zapu) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (Zanu).1953 – Britain constructs the Central African Federation, incorporates Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nyasaland (Malawi).1963 – Federation dismantles when Zambia and Malawi achieve independence.1964 – Ian Smith of the Rhodesian Front (RF) acquires the status of prime minister, he tries to convince Britain to grant independence.1965 – Smith unilaterally announces independence under white minority rule, pulling the trigger on international outrage and economic sanctions.

1972 – Guerrilla war against white rule escalates, with competitors Zanu and Zapu working out of Zambia and Mozambique.1978 – Smith gives in to pressure for a negotiated settlement. The new government of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, led by Bishop Abel Muzorewa, doesn’t succeed in gaining international recognition. Civil war persistent.

1979 – British parties converse at the Lancaster House in London and lead to a peace agreement and new constitution, which guarantees minority rights.1980 – Veteran independence leader Robert Mugabe and his Zanu party be the victor in British-supervised independence elections. Independence on 18 April is internationally acknowledged.1982 – Mugabe turns on Nkomo, blaming him of preparing to overthrow the government.

1987 – Mugabe, Nkomo join together their parties to form Zanu-PF, putting an end to the violence in southern areas.1987 – Mugabe alters the constitution and becomes the executive president.1991 – The Commonwealth selects the Harare Declaration at its summit in Zimbabwe, reaffirming its aims of fostering international peace and security, democracy, freedom of the individual and equal rights for all.1998 – Economic crisis as well as riots and strikes.

1999 – Economic crisis is sustained, Zimbabwe’s military involvement in DR Congo’s civil war becomes progressively unpopular.

2000 – February – President Mugabe’s crushed and suffers defeat in referendum on draft constitution.2000 – June – Parliamentary elections: Zanu-PF hardly fights off a challenge from the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) led by Morgan Tsvangirai, and loses its power and authority to modify the constitution.

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