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In the research article, a qualitative data analysis method has been used in order to verify the main research question. The four reasons can be provided in support of the claim that it was a qualitative research method. Seven women were selected by visiting the cadres in order to complete the study. All the volunteers visited the residents door-to-door for collecting information. Using an interview guide, the data was obtained after in-depth interviews among the participants. Data from the observational sheets, field notes were also collected for the further analysis. All the records from the interview were transcribed, analyzed and categorized into social support as well as action situation. All these steps indicate that the research method used by them was qualitative in nature (Palupi and Devy 2018).
Research hypothesis- Adolescent mothers tend to breastfeed for shorter durations than the older mothers.
The research hypothesis would be considered as an appropriate step in undertaking a deductive approach to the research because a deductive approach always begins with a hypothesis and the emphasis for this kind of approaches is generally on casualty. The purpose of the research is to gather information and data in an existing practice or situation. This research hypothesis is aimed to test an existing theory which states that adolescent mothers are less likely to breastfeed their children than the older mothers and adolescent mothers tend to breastfeed for shorter duration. The main and particular idea is being generalized in the research hypothesis which is making it deductive (Bryman 2016).
Qualitative research question- What is the breastfeeding behaviour among adolescents?
The research question would be considered as an appropriate step in undertaking an inductive approach to the research. Inductive approach always focussed to generate a new theory from the emerging data related to it. This approach is also associated with qualitative research question. In this research question, data will be collected with a qualitative research method and which will produce a new theory after the analysis. In this inductive approach new phenomena will be established and existing research phenomena will be looked from a new and different perspective (Bryman 2016).
Here I am using the qualitative research question to find a relevant peer reviewed journal article.
Abstract- The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation (Kanhadilok and McGrath 2015).
This is the perception for problematic drinking in which the drunk people lose their functionality and it also indicates the loss of control. If a person loses his control and cannot remember what happened when he was drunk then that can be perceived as problematic drinking. So, the statement is associated with the perception of problematic drinking (Khadjesari et al. 2018).
According to the life stage the concern varies and younger adults think that alcohol consumption of older adults is an issue of concern whereas, older adults views the drinking of younger adults as problematic. The concept of younger adults is to enjoy before getting old and beginning a family life. Older adults think that, the irrelevance of the guidance was related to life stage and it happens due to their heavy drinking at weekend. So, the theme life stage is associated with the statement (Khadjesari et al. 2018).
Reaction to screening and advice in drinking theme is related with this statement. People get embarrassed in discussing their drinking with the doctors or G.P as they do not want to get labelled as problematic drinker by the doctor. Even, some younger participants get afraid of discussing their alcohol consumption with the doctors because they do not want to get labelled as “alcoholic”. So, people sometime do not disclose the exact amount of alcohol which they consume to their doctors (Khadjesari et al. 2018).
Sometimes, drinking is considered as one of the options of lifestyle among many people. They consider that it is associated with socialising too. For some people it is normal to go out for a drink and ordering drinks in the pubs while attending meeting with clients. Many people think that with a healthy diet and healthy lifestyle, alcohol cannot be harmful to the body and a right amount of alcohol consumption is quite normal. Even, sometimes it becomes necessary also. So, this statement is related to the theme of lifestyle which is discussed in the article “I am not a boozer” (Khadjesari et al. 2018).
I have found the primary study as well as the Systematic review article on the scenario provided from Google Scholar. I used some specific key words and they are, falls, preventions, elderly, systematic review, primary study.
Lasting disability and further falls are common and costly problems in older people following fall-related lower limb and pelvic fractures. Exercise interventions can improve mobility after fracture and reduce falls in older people, however the optimal approach to rehabilitation after fall-related lower limb and pelvic fracture is unclear. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effects of an exercise and fall prevention self-management intervention on mobility-related disability and falls in older people following fall-related lower limb or pelvic fracture. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention will also be investigated (Sherrington et al. 2016).
Objective Previous meta-analyses have found that exercise prevents falls in older people. This study aimed to test whether this effect is still present when new trials are added, and it explores whether characteristics of the trial design, sample or intervention are associated with greater fall prevention effects (Sherrington et al. 2017).
Design Update of a systematic review with random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression.
Data sources Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PEDro and SafetyLit were searched from January 2010 to January 2016.
Study eligibility criteria We included randomised controlled trials that compared fall rates in older people randomised to receive exercise as a single intervention with fall rates in those randomised to a control group (Sherrington et al. 2017).
Results 99 comparisons from 88 trials with 19 478 participants were available for meta-analysis. Overall, exercise reduced the rate of falls in community-dwelling older people by 21% (pooled rate ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.85, p<0.001, I2 47%, 69 comparisons) with greater effects seen from exercise programmes that challenged balance and involved more than 3 hours/week of exercise. These variables explained 76% of the between-trial heterogeneity and in combination led to a 39% reduction in falls (incident rate ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.72, p<0.001). Exercise also had a fall prevention effect in community-dwelling people with Parkinson's disease (pooled rate ratio 0.47, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.73, p=0.001, I2 65%, 6 comparisons) or cognitive impairment (pooled rate ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.83, p=0.004, I2 21%, 3 comparisons). There was no evidence of a fall prevention effect of exercise in residential care settings or among stroke survivors or people recently discharged from hospital (Sherrington et al. 2017).
Summary/conclusions Exercise as a single intervention can prevent falls in community-dwelling older people. Exercise programmes that challenge balance and are of a higher dose have larger effects. The impact of exercise as a single intervention in clinical groups and aged care facility residents requires further investigation, but promising results are evident for people with Parkinson’s disease and cognitive impairment (Sherrington et al. 2017).
Falling can be dangerous for the elderly people and almost all the elderly people face problem regarding this. In order to prevent the falls, regular exercise can be the best way out. Regular and weekly exercise program would be helpful in fall prevention among elderly people (Sherrington et al. 2017). Exercise must be chosen considering the safety of them such as reducing the base support by standing with two legs close to each other, moving the centre of gravity by transferring the body weight to other leg etc. can be done as exercise. Among the elderly people, exercise will not only help in fall prevention but also will provide many health benefits. Regular, at least three hours of exercise has the potential to reduce many adverse health outcomes like hospitalization, disability etc. This will help in reducing cost also. The improved body functioning of the elderly people will provide a better quality life to them (Sherrington et al. 2016).
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