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Sampling can be defined as “a process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined number of observations are taken from a larger population. The methodology used to sample from a larger population depends on the type of analysis being performed but may include simple random sampling or systematic sampling”. In order for the sample to be error-free in its findings, the Researcher must first find appropriate persons to collect the required Sampling Data for the intended sample.
The importance of using this sampling can be identity by Thisted (2006), who stated the cross-sectional design affords good control over the measurement process in this research variables of interest in a sample of subjects are attempt once and the relationships between them are determined. One example of a Cross-Sectional design is a medical study on the pervasiveness on breast cancer in a population. When conducting the research, the research can look at a range of social backgrounds, race and age. After this is conducted according to the statistics, the researcher can now investigate further into the range with the highest significant number of women who are found to have this disease. Outcomes will be compared with Dutch reference values. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and fatigue will be assessed using accelerometer and age-specific questionnaires.
This article matches the Cross-sectional design for quantitative research for all the followings are qualities of the cross-section design. Quantitative research designs are usually measured once or an experimental topic is measured before and after a treatment. It examines different groups of people from different ages and social backgrounds to get a more accurate finding. Boyd and Bee (2012) identity this research design as consideration when studying, for instance, age-related or changes in behavior.
This study is an observational research method that uses the same data that is gathered repeatedly over time. Farrington (1991) identity importance of longitudinal design such as it enables us to differentiate either between change over time in group data and changes within individuals, or changes in a population at risk. Crichton (2016) investigated whether or not soft drinks are associated with cognitive functions to accommodate cardiovascular, lifestyle, dietary factors and whether or not the person had type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted by 803 participants who lived in the community consisting of the age between 23 to 98 years. While researching findings showed that persons who had type 2 diabetes had a greater intake and was associated with poorer performance in working memory and executive functions. This article matches the research method because it is a long-term requirement that gives an outcome. For example, the research conducted was done to see if soft drinks cause cognitive functions. This relies on an observational study that gathers information over a period of time. The purpose of conducting a longitudinal study is to find the cause of a problem through researching samples that have been studied over the years.
The importance of using this method is to gather in depth information that helps the researcher get a wider understanding of the topic. This method is used to seek and collect information on the background or the context of a phenomenon. In the qualitative research method, the researcher may not always know what he or she will find. This method is used to collect non-numeric data. An example of this mixed method approach is cited in the subsection on longitudinal designs; specifically, the study by Sanson et al. (2002). In their study on the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) the authors noted that their methods of data assessment was done consisting of twenty- two open-ended questions and a set of objective measurements. The group was developed by the investigators and was based on its aim, theories and pilot testing. The assessment was conducted and relied on interviewing individuals from six universities students that was able to gather information through an in-depth interview which used open-ended questions to gather the most information possible using focus groups. This article matches qualitative research because of its focus group which is a qualitative method that seeks to gather an extensive amount of information. Though this type of research method may be more efficient due to its extensive period of data gathering, this method is very time consuming for researchers and is usually not done often.Two major issues of sampling are selection error and population specification error. Selection error is an issue in sampling because it often occurs when the sample is used based on availability of the members instead of generalizing. Selection error can be controlled by motivating members in partaking in the study instead of being bias or using a systematic sampling procedure. Population specification, this is where the researcher uses incorrect participants or is unaware of who should be used to conduct the survey which can result in problems in the validity and the reliability of the proposed survey. For example, conducting a survey on cereal consumption. The researcher may only conduct the survey with the parents since they bought the cereal but not the children who may have influenced them to purchase it in the first place.
In collecting data, a researcher may come across issues. A researcher can overcome issues such as selection error and population specification error by selecting the most appropriate participants for the study. It also important to have individuals be aware of the data being collected and the reason behind it to ensure that the most suitable candidates are chosen. The researcher should also be interested in conducting the study as it can help bring forth persons to partake in the study. Also, when trying to overcome sampling issues it is also important to know the size of the intended population and refraining from being bias.
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