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Six Sigma is a method used for reducing variation in manufacturing, service or other business processes. The projects measure the cost benefit of improving processes that are producing substandard products or services. It is a statistical method which involves varied business-driven approach and the ability to improve processes, reduce costs and increase the profits. This improvement tool is extensively utilized in manufacturing, industrial and services industry. It is a set of techniques and tools used for process improvement. It was presented by engineer Bill Smith while working at Motorola in 1986. Jack Welch made it vital to his business strategy at General Electric in 1995. It seeks to improve the quality of the output of a process by identification and elimination of the causes of the defect. Also, it minimizes the variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization who are experts in these methods. Every Six Sigma project carried out in an organization follows a definite sequence of step. They have specific value targets, such as: reduce process cycle time, reduce wastage, reduce costs, increase customer loyalty, and increase profits.
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The term Six Sigma devised from the terms associated with statistical modeling of manufacturing processes. The development of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating which shows the yield or the percentage of defect-free products it creates. Motorola set an objective of "six sigma" for the majority of its manufacturing operations, and this objective became a by-word for the management and engineering practices used to accomplish it.
The objective of each effective Six Sigma project is to produce statistically significant improvements in a process. Over time, multiple Six Sigma projects produce a virtually defect-free performance. The fundamental objective of the Six Sigma methodology is the implementation of a measurement-based strategy that focuses on process improvement and variation reduction through the application of Six Sigma improvement projects. This is accomplished through the use of two Six Sigma sub-methodologies: DMAIC and DMADV. The Six Sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) process is an improvement system for existing processes falling below specification and looking for incremental improvement. The Six Sigma DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify) process is an improvement system used to develop new processes or products at Six Sigma quality levels. It can also be employed if a current process requires more than just incremental improvement.
Both Six Sigma processes are executed by Six Sigma Green Belts and Six Sigma Black Belts and are overseen by Six Sigma Master Black Belts. Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its successful implementation. Executive Leadership includes the CEO and other members of top management. They are responsible for setting up a vision for Six Sigma implementation. They also empower the other role holders with the freedom and resources to explore new ideas for breakthrough improvements by transcending departmental barriers and overcoming inherent resistance to change. Champions take responsibility for Six Sigma implementation across the organization in an integrated manner. The Executive Leadership draws them from upper management.
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Champions also act as mentors to Black Belts. Master Black Belts, identified by Champions, act as in-house coaches on Six Sigma. They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. They assist Champions and guide Black Belts and Green Belts. Apart from statistical tasks, they spend their time on ensuring consistent application of Six Sigma across various functions and departments. Black Belts operate under Master Black Belts to apply Six Sigma methodology to specific projects. They devote 100% of their valued time to Six Sigma. They primarily focus on Six Sigma project execution and special leadership with special tasks, whereas Champions and Master Black Belts focus on identifying projects/functions for Six Sigma. Green Belts are the employees who take up Six Sigma implementation along with their other job responsibilities, operating under the guidance of Black Belts. About WIPRO LTD. Wipro Ltd. is a leading global information technology, consulting and business process services company. They harness the power of cognitive computing, hyper-automation, robotics, cloud, analytics and emerging technologies to help their clients adapt to the digital world and make them successful.
A company recognized globally for its comprehensive portfolio of services, a strong commitment to sustainability and good corporate citizenship, they have over 160,000 dedicated employees serving clients across six continents. Together, they discover ideas and connect the dots to build a better and a bold new future. Wipro Limited (Western India Palm Refined Oils Limited or more recently, Western India Products Limited) is an Indian Information Technology Services corporation headquartered in Bengaluru, India. In 2013, Wipro demerged its non-IT businesses into separate companies to bring in more focus on independent businesses. The company was incorporated on 29 December 1945 in Amalner, Maharashtra by Mohamed Premji as 'Western India Vegetable Products Limited', later abbreviated to 'Wipro'. It was initially set up as a manufacturer of vegetable and refined oils in Amalner, Maharashtra, India under the trade names of Kisan, Sunflower, and Camel. Why Wipro undertook Six Sigma? To reduce the data transfer time. To reduce the risk. To avoid interpretation due to LAN/WAN downtime. For parallel availability of the switch for the other administrative tasks during the same period. What does Six Sigma mean at Wipro? To have products and services meet the global benchmark.
Ensure robust processes within the organization. Consistently meet & exceed customer expectation. Make quality a culture within. Challenges faced during implementation of six sigma program: Changing the culture: Restructuring the organization culture, infrastructure, training and confidence building took time. Project Selection: Choosing a suitable project in the first year was a challenge. Wipro decided to select those projects which had higher chances of success and targeted to complete this project in a short time span. Training: Finding the right people and training those people presented a tough job at Wipro. Training was rolled out in 5 phases: Defining, measuring, analyzing, improving and controlling the process and lastly increasing customer satisfaction. Wipro implemented the Six Sigma Program for different service lines: Developing New Processes Improving Existing Processes Reengineering Different methodologies used by Wipro for implementing six sigma For Developing New Processes: Developing six sigma software (dsss methodology): for software development that ensures defect-free delivery and lower customer cost of application development. Designing six sigma process and product (dssp methodology): for designing new products and processes. Design for customer satisfaction and manufacturability (dcam method) For Improving Existing Processes: Transactional quality using six sigma (TQSS): For defect reduction in transactional processes. DMAIC: For process improvement in non-transactional process.
For Reengineering: 1. Cross-functional process (cfp methodology) – The process followed for the implementation of the above methodologies is explained below: Built the culture: Implementation of Six Sigma required support from high-level managers. For this, the company restructured the organization and provided infrastructure, training, and confidence in the process. Selection of the project: For the selection of the right project the field data was collected, process map was developed and the importance of the project was judged from the eyes of the customers. Resources: Resources were identified on the basis of short term and long term requirements. The project selected was a crucial factor in determining the resources required. Controlling: Wipro developed a team of experts in reviewing the projects. It was done to see the timeliness of the project completion, targeting of gaps, weak areas, and deviations.
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