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The first war between India and Pakistan started very often the independence in October 1947 and ended in December 1948 with the mediation of UN, effected on January 1st, 1949. This was also known as first Kashmir war, fought for Kashmir accession between both countries.
Importance of KashmirKashmir was Muslim majority area, strategically located between India and Pakistan. It was an only way to access China’s border which could be important for future relations and trade. So, Pakistan was not in favour to compromise on KashmirKashmiri Muslims majority areas were led by Hindu Dogra. Dogra Maharaja was unable to decide which state to join, as the British held that princely states would have to accede to India or Pakistan according to location and demographics.
Hostilities Set out-Oct 1947Hostilities began in October when a tribal rebellion started in Poonch area in the south-west of Kashmir. On October 20, Pak army entered the scene in support of tribal forces to capture Uri, Jhangar, Rajuara and naushera. Pakistan’s army aim was to capture Srinagar ‘capital of Kashmir’. On 22 October, a Lashkar of tribals also entered in Kashmir valley from Abbottabad. Tribal and Pak forces halted Kashmiri battalion at Muzaffarabad by October 23. On October 26, they surrounded the Srinagar.
All the activities of Pak forces were less successful as Pakistani forces met fierce resistance at Uri until fall. After the fall of Uri, Pak and tribal forces advanced to Srinagar. Pak army left on backed forces to hold on Uri. Intervention Of IndiaWhen Pak forces successfully captured and surrounded Srinagar, Maharaja seemed to have beaten and asked India for support. India agreed instantly and laid one condition that Kashmir will be a part of India. Both Maharaja and Prime Minister of Kashmir agreed and signed the instrument of accession on October 26, 1947.
Indian forces air-lifted troops for the operation to halt the tribunal incursion in Kashmir on 27 October. On Indian intervention, Quaid-e-Azam ordered to enter the army in Kashmir. General Gracy (acting Commander in Chief of Pak army) did not obey the command. It was a case of treason.
Field Marshal Auchinleck of the joint command of India and Pakistan armed forces, threatened Quaid that act of invasion over Kashmir would automatic withdraw all British officers serving in Pakistan army. This ultimatum tended Pakistan deprive of its command structure because that time mostly officers in Pakistan army were British.
India saw an opportunity and deployed 161st infantry brigade and halted the advance of tribal forces. In November 1947, the 161st brigade using heavy armoured cars counter-attacked and broke through defences and advanced towards Srinagar. They initially repulse Pakistani backed-forces and return power to Srinagar along with capturing Baramula and Uri. Furthermore, they were not ready for fighting in the mountains. Indians were not experienced high altitude and also were not prepared for cold. Whereas, Pakistani forces were experienced in these situations and Pak army backed-forces were able to push back the enemy from the border area.
On February 1948, India mounted another offensive in Jammu and Kashmir. India raised 5 brigades in Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan’s army 101st brigade was rushed to halt Indian forces along Uri and Muzaffarabad. By April 1948, Pak army in the north Muzaffarabad and Kohala and in the south Bhimber-Mirpur and Poonch and further advanced the front with the 7th division to halt Indian offensive at Chakothi. 9(F) division was also advanced to defend Muzaffarabad front and Tithwal. After then 7th division moved from Chakothi to the southern front.By June, Pak army had 5 brigades together with para-military corps holding 12 Indian brigades which were supported with armour, airforce and artillery
August 14, 1948On the first anniversary of Pakistan, General headquarters sent loyal greetings to Quaid-e-Azam. That time, Quaid-e-Azam was in Quetta, fighting against deadly affliction and died on 11 September 1948.
Operation VenusIn December, Pak army conducted an operation ‘Operation Venus’ to cut off the main supply of the enemy at Beri Pattan bridge area. On December 14, Pak army destroyed the area containing ammunition, petrol and supplies. Pakistan forces isolated Indian forces in that area as they were surprised.
At midnight of December 30, India asked for a ceasefire because now India had no choice. Pakistan accepted ceasefire as it was declared with the mediation of UN. Ceasefire affected on 1st January 1949. Pakistan acquired 3rd of Kashmir which later named ‘Azad Kashmir’. However, Pakistan army halted the Indian pride and prevented Kashmir from totally acceding to India.
During skirmishes, Pak army had completed its formative stage and continued to give attention to raise army power. Pakistan builds an Ordnance factory to produce arms and ammunition at Wah.
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