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The history of the study of schizophrenia has a long history and is of incredible interest to doctors in all respects. This is the most common disease among patients entering psychiatric hospitals.
The word schizophrenia itself means from the Greek – I divide the mind, which I understand chaos, as well as incompatibility, irrationality, and inconsistency from ordinary people, understand. Schizophrenia causes severe mental changes, Characterized by low, satisfactory condition of dementia and complete disability.
The first description of the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia appeared at the beginning of 2000 BC, as contained in the earliest book of the Egyptian papyrus.Studying ancient Greek and Roman sources, one can find that scientists at the time were sufficiently aware of the personality disorders of personality, but there are no descriptions that would meet today’s criteria for schizophrenia.At the same time, signs and symptoms of schizophrenia were seen in medieval Arabic medical and psychological texts.
Despite the general concept of madness that existed for thousands of years, only in 1893 schizophrenia was developed in an independent emotional disorder by Emil Crepilen. Merit in the history of schizophrenia is that it first developed a line between psychotic disorders and manic depression.The history of schizophrenia had changed dramatically since 1908, when Eugen Bleuler (a Swiss psychiatrist) described schizophrenia and introduced the term in psychiatry, noting that it is an independent disease that is fundamentally different from dementia acquired dementia. Its advantages are that it has proved the presence of the disease not only in young years but also in adulthood.
Characteristic is not dementia but features such as violation of unity in the self, as well as violations of the level of associative thinking. He emphasized the following diagnostic criteria: low impact, autism, association disorder, and contradiction.
He attributed the contradiction to the main symptoms of schizophrenia, which was divided into three types: emotional, voluntary, and intellectual.Emotional emotion combines positive, as well as a negative feeling of an event, a person, an object.The contradiction will include endless fluctuations of torture between the opposition decisions, as well as the inability to choose between them, which ultimately leads to the abandonment of a concrete decision in general.The intellectual contradiction lies in the rotation, as well as the existence of harmonious and contradictory ideas of thinking at the same time.
In Schizophrenia, changes occurred when Boller proposed dividing the disease into four subgroups: paranoid, hyperpneic, catatonia, and simple schizophrenia. But most often by Blyler, the underlying schizophrenia. He frankly admitted that he was not aware of the nature of the schizophrenic process. Moreover, the study of the initial symptoms, he believes that the disease path is less predictable, and it is also difficult to predict the future.World War I brought schizophrenia to its peak.The history of schizophrenia fills with new philosophical systems and new methods of treatment, leading to the flourishing of psychoanalysis. Boiler applies psychoanalysis as an explanatory theory to describe a set of schizophrenic psychosis, without mentioning it as a therapeutic agent.
In 1917, the world shook by two epidemics: the Spanish, also deep encephalitis, also called sleep disorder, characterized by severe hallucination delirium. Carotid encephalitis is believed to be directly linked to schizophrenia. At the same time, methods of treating schizophrenia have been developed. The same period has raised interest in treating schizophrenia with sleep.Since 1921, physician Jacob Clyce has been using barbiturates to rid schizophrenia of spontaneous. But this method did not take root because it was dangerous because of possible overdose and in 1925 out of 311 patients were treated, 15 died.Since 1930, barbiturates have been replaced with less hypnotic, containing barbituride paraldehyde, as well as collide. Until then, experts began to suspect that barbiturate derivative there is heavy drug use, and despite this, the drug is still used for another half-century.
The history of Schizophrenia since 1933 is full of discovery. Manfred Schickel submitted to the Medical Society in Vienna as a result of his work on blood sugar trauma, which can have a beneficial effect on the psychological state of people with schizophrenia.After a while, the concept of schizophrenia was officially recognized by all psychiatrists around the world and remained aware of the signs of diagnosis, as well as the causes of the onset of the disease and how to treat it properly. What scientists do to this day.In the first half of the 20th century, schizophrenia was associated with the hereditary defect, and in many countries, patients became victims of manipulating pre-eugenics. Thousands of people were incapacitated in the United States, Nazi Germany, and also in the Scandinavian countries. Many schizophrenic patients have become victims of the Nazi murder program with the stigma of “mental anomalies.”
In 1950, Manfred Schickel concluded that insulin shock has a real therapeutic effect on schizophrenic patients.Moreover, in the history of schizophrenia, Hungary’s Hungarian researcher Laszlo van Midon, who proposed the following method of treatment for this disease, appeared to cause seizures in the patient with camphor injections, and then with cortisol or pentylenetetrazole injections.
In 1937, Laszlo van Medina summed up the publication of “Spastic Therapy of Schizophrenia.”Simultaneously with the Hungarian scholar, Roman Professor Lucio Beni, together with assistant Hugo Curletti, began using electricity for convulsions.In the history of schizophrenia, the first patient, who has received remission after having undergone electrical shock therapy, appears.It is especially significant in the history of schizophrenic treatment attempt by psychological surgery, carried out by scientists. Since 1888, the first experiments began in this area, which belongs to Gottlieb Burchardt. In 1935, the International Conference of Neurologists was held in London, where one of the reports was devoted to frontal lobe physiology. Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz has achieved other important findings in psychological surgery, but his methods have not been widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia.
The history of schizophrenia has expanded from the biochemical era, which began in 1952. The discovery of psychosis characterized this year.During World War II, French doctors used promethazine derivatives, as well as phenothiazines. Its effect on patients was calming. A little later in 1950 in the treatment of schizophrenia begin to use another drug, called Largactyl. Applied in anesthesia, it was observed that the drug had a specific effect on the self. Patients become indifferent and indifferent. The mechanism of action of antipsychotics allowed to reduce the severity of delirium hallucinations symptoms, but with side effects, further treatment was at a standstill. However, doctors have the confidence to heal patients, who eventually got the human traits visible.Diagnostic prescriptions for the disease began over time, and after an American-British study in 1971, it became clear that in American schizophrenia it was diagnosed, often in Europe.
The history of schizophrenia expanded in the 1980s by the discovery of non-conventional antipsychotics. This discovery facilitated the positive and negative symptoms of the disease. Its selective effect was widespread on a range of symptoms of schizophrenia and was much more comfortable to tolerate, greatly facilitating the lives of mentally ill patients. These properties served in the fact that they began to be prescribed worldwide for the treatment of schizophrenia.
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