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The History of Terrorism

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Words: 905 |

Pages: 2|

5 min read

Published: Oct 31, 2018

Words: 905|Pages: 2|5 min read

Published: Oct 31, 2018

The history of modern terrorism began with the French revolution and has evolved ever since. The most common causes or roots of terrorism include civilizations or culture clashes, globalization, religion, Israeli-Palestinian conflict, or the Russian invasion of Afghanistan. More personal or individual-based reasons for terrorism are frustration, deprivation, negative identity, narcissistic rage, and/or moral disengagement. State-Sponsored terrorism, which consists of terrorist acts on a state or government by a state or government. Dissent terrorism, which are terrorist groups which have rebelled against their government.

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Terrorists and the Left and Right, which are groups rooted in political ideology. Religious terrorism, which are terrorist groups which are extremely religiously motivated and Criminal Terrorism, which are terrorist acts used to aid in crime and criminal profit. According to the National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, there are six distinct types of terrorism. All of them share the common traits of being violent acts that destroy property, invoke fear and attempt to harm the lives of civilians.

  1. Civil disorder – is a sometimes violent form of protest held by a group of individuals, usually in opposition to a political policy or action. They are intended to send a message to a political group that “the people” are unhappy and demand change. The protests are intended to be non-violent, but they do sometimes result in large riots in which private property is destroyed and civilians are injured or killed.
  2. Political terrorism – is used by one political faction to intimidate another. Although government leaders are the ones who are intended to receive the ultimate message, it is the citizens who are targeted with violent attacks.
  3. Nonpolitical terrorism – is a terrorist act perpetrated by a group for any other purpose, most often of a religious nature. The desired goal is something other than a political objective, but the tactics involved are the same.
  4. Quasi-terrorism – is a violent act that utilizes the same methods terrorists employ, but does not have the same motivating factors. Cases like this usually involve an armed criminal who is trying to escape from law enforcement utilizing civilians as hostages to help them escape. The lawbreaker is acting in a similar manner to a terrorist, but terrorism is not the goal.
  5. Limited political terrorism – acts are generally one time only plots to make a political or ideological statement. The goal is not to overthrow the government, but to protest a governmental policy or action.
  6. State terrorism – defines any violent action initiated by an existing government to achieve a particular goal. Most often this goal involves a conflict with another country. Every type of terrorism utilizes distinct methods of violence to get their message across. They can be anything from assault weapons or explosive devices to toxic chemicals that are released into the air. These attacks may occur at any time or place, which makes them an extremely effective method of instilling terror and uncertainty into the general public. Causes of terrorism in India There are several causes of terrorism in India. To begin with, there are political reasons for the growth of terrorism in India. This is primarily seen in The North-East region.

The state government there have failed to control and manage large-scale illegal Muslim immigration from Bangladesh. Economic causes too contribute to terrorism in India. These include rural unemployment, exploitation of landless laborers by those who own land and lack of land reforms. The major states affected by such causes include Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, and Andhra Pradesh. The absence of land reforms, rural unemployment, exploitation of landless laborers by landowners, economic grievances and perceptions of gross social injustice in these states have given rise to ideological terrorist groups such as the various Marxist/Maoist groups waging a war against the respective state government. Thirdly, religious causes to lead to terrorism in India. Punjab witnessed the growth of terrorism when certain organizations of Sikhs led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale raised the demand for Khalistan, an independent state for Sikhs. Some elements belonging to different organizations shifted to terrorism for the creation of a separate state known as Khalistan for the Sikhs. Similarly, Jammu & Kashmir has been reeling under religious extremism which seeks to appropriate all rights for the Muslim majority.

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Agencies Fighting Terrorism in India National Intelligence Wings: Among them, mention can be made of Intelligence Bureau, an internal intelligence agency under the Ministry of Home Affairs; the Research and Analysis Wing, an external intelligence agency under the Cabinet Secretariat; the Defence Intelligence, and the intelligence directorate generals of the armed forces. Physical security agencies: Among them, we have the Central Industrial Security Force, which is responsible for security at airports and sensitive establishments, and the National Security Guards (NSG), a specially trained force, which is called in the wake of emergencies such as hijacking, hostage-taking, etc. Then we have the Special Protection Group (SPG), which is responsible for the security of the prime minister and former prime ministers. Paramilitary forces: Not to be left behind, forces such as Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and the Border Security Force (BSF), assist the police in counter-terrorism operations in times of need. The Army: The Indian Army has a significant role in India’s fight against terrorism. It has a permanent position in J&K, which is bearing the brunt of large-scale infiltration from Pakistan and the presence of divisive elements within the troubled state.

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Cite this Essay

The History of Terrorism. (2018, October 26). GradesFixer. Retrieved May 20, 2024, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-history-of-terrorism/
“The History of Terrorism.” GradesFixer, 26 Oct. 2018, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-history-of-terrorism/
The History of Terrorism. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-history-of-terrorism/> [Accessed 20 May 2024].
The History of Terrorism [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2018 Oct 26 [cited 2024 May 20]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-history-of-terrorism/
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