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The Second World War was the most barbarous and devastating war in human history, and Europe was converted to a devastated continent with high unemployment, shortage of basics such as food, electricity, fuel. In France and Italy, there was a wide popular discontent with poverty, food shortage and shortage of basics and people started to look for communism as a possible solution for their problems and there was widespread support in France and Italy for communist parties. At the end of World War II major European powers were weakened after more than 60 million deaths over 6 years of fighting in world war II, and two superpowers remained in the world the united states of America and the USSR who fought together as allies to defeat Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan. The USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was a vast area covering 1,6 of the land surface of the planet, it was a federal state under a communist regime and headed by a single party. The United States of America was a liberal democracy based on capitalism and with a military-aged (the only country with the atomic weapon) and also had the world’s strongest industry and economy. Both powers try to peddle their influence in Europe the US under its Truman doctrine and Marshal plan, and the USSR wanted to protect its border and setup pro soviet government in liberal countries. And Europe has divided into two blocs western bloc and the eastern bloc.
Truman doctrine is named after former president Harry S. Truman delivered his speech to congress on the 12th of 1947, this was when the world had been divided into two blocs and as the end of World War had given two superpowers to the world. As we know the Cold War was fought between USSR and the US, it was a war between two ideologies of communism and capitalism, the united states of America were promoting capitalism and the USSR was promoting communism so just after the end of world war II these two superpowers come into an indirect confrontation.
The speech of Harry S. Truman was based on a policy statement regarding the situation at that time. This speech becomes the Truman doctrine and the historian often says that the speech of Harry S. Truman was the official declaration of the Cold War. The main point in the speech of Harry S. Truman was military assistance and economic aid to Greece and Turkey to fight against communism. Besides this Harry S. Truman openly announced that the united state will send military and economic aid to the countries whose political stability was threatened by communism.
The Truman administration believed that both nations Greece and Turkey were threatened by communism. In Greece, rivals were battling the Greece royal government since the end of World War II. And Greece was ruled by a monarchy and there was a treat from communist rivals try to overthrow the monarchy government and established communist government. In Turkey soviet were demanding some manner of control over the Dadanils territory from which Turkey was able to dominate the strategic waterways from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, so USSR pressured turkey to give USSR a military base and transit right throw the Turkish straights. So this was a great chance for the united states to take responsibility for Greece and Turkey and eradicate the roads of communism from these two countries.
In his speech, Harry S. Truman said that Greece was threatened by the terrorist activity of several thousand men led by communism and the United States should support Greece so it could become a self-supporting, self-respecting democracy. He also said that the freedom-loving people of Turkey also needed our aid which was necessary for the fight against communism and maintenance of the national integrity of Turkey. The president declared that it must the policy of the united states to support free people who are restating attempted subjugation of armed minorities and by outside pressure.
Truman requested 400 million dollars in assistance for two nations and congress approved his request two months later. The Truman administration also in the Snited States devised the policy of containment to prevent the spread of the influence of communism backed by the USSR in the world and especially in Europe. This policy was first laid by George F. Kenan in 1947 he was the foreign office of the United States. The Truman administration state that communism need to be contained or else it would be spread to neighboring countries and American foreign policy advisors believed that once one country fell to communism each surrounding country would also fall as well to communism, so the United States should support countries to fight against communism and provide these countries economic, military aid.
In conclusion, the Truman administration believed that communism could only be stooped if Europe becomes wealthier and use capitalism or a free-market economy, they also think countries with self-constitution government and demarcated government and with the free-market economy would effective for country prosperity and would become good allies to united states in trade, commerce, and war. Harry S. Truman’s speech was an appeal to the world, which was divided into two large-scale blocs as a result of the World War.
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