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The Declaration of human rights was established on 10 December 1948. It was standardized document which describes human rights. In this declaration, there are 30 articles where is written about human rights, duties, access to education and medicine. The Declaration was written to avoid destruction of human rights such as slavery, racism or inequality among people. Declaration says that everyone is free but there are still people in the world who are suffering from slavery, or other types of infringement. For instance, article made by Fitzpatrick (2017) shows that during the last five years 89 million people have acquainted with some form of slavery. Most of them were forced into hard labour. There appears a questions, what are the reasons of this problem? Why United Nations still can’t solve it? And how we can solve this issue?
One of the causes of human rights violations is political regime of the country. Example of it can be North Korea, a communist government. According to Head (2017) government regulates and supervises all newspaper and magazines, television and radio stations, which forces citizens praise their “Dear Leader”, Kim Jong-un. Also, listening to foreign radio stations, communicating with foreigners will cause experiencing penalties. Traveling abroad is forbidden, it can bring the possibility of death which breaks the rights of movement and right to live.
Moreover, the undeveloped economic situations have a negative impact on the observance of human rights. Some economic crises lead to a decrease in the standard of living of the population, therefore it is already impossible to observe some human rights. For instance, according to Heritage Foundation (2017) Mali is scoring 31,2 percent lower with 58,6% on Index of Economic Freedom (including property rights, judicial effectiveness, labor freedom and etc.) than Hong Kong with 89,8%. Even though slavery in Mali was officially ended in 1960s, in the words of Temedt (Bamako-based human rights organisation’s member), slavery is still present in the far north of the country between Berber-descended Tuareg nomads and darker-skinned Bella or Black Tamasheq people (as cited in Hicks, 2008).
Serious violations of Human Rights are manifest in Democratic People’s Republic of Korea by the Government. Infringements activate the executions, forced labor, torture and other kinds of violence. Such types of punishments are committed with the accused and with their families in specialized political camps. Strangulation by Government affects in worst way on developing of their culture and national identity.
Moreover, oppression and discrimination have a negative effect on a person’s self-esteem and lead to irreparable consequence.
In the number of 10 and 15 million Africans were carting across the Atlantic Ocean between 1500 and 1900 by the trans-Atlantic slave trade (transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly from Africa to the Americas, and then their sale there. ). Nearly 2 million Africans (15%) died during passage across the Atlantic Ocean. Others, around 15-30 % died during the coast-keeping. Overall, every 100 slaves who reached the New World (Americas, including nearby islands such as the Caribbean and Bermuda), 40 had died there (Digital History, 2016).
The world is becoming more and more demandable. Some countries are developing with a speed of light, while others are stuck. In such countries citizens don’t have access to education and medicine. Furthermore due to religious and political conflicts in this countries level of death is high. In Declaration is written ‘We all have the right to believe in what we want to believe, to have a religion, or to change it if we want.’ But in African or in Middle East countries humans don’t have right to choose. They are a good example of people whose rights are violated. One of them is Uganda. For instance, in 2014 July 100 people died, and the reason of that is a religious conflict (BBC, 2017). A lot of developed countries such as Russia, USA, Germany, France are trying to solve this problem.
Kazakhstan is one of the countries where human rights are not strongly follows. For instance in Almaty dozen of activists were arrested. Because they were in opposition to land reform in 2016 . But Kazakhstan’s government is trying to avoid human rights violation. In Kazakhstan’s constitution is written: The Republic of Kazakhstan proclaims itself a democratic, secular, legal and social state whose highest values are an individual, his life, rights and freedoms (The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Section I, Article 1).
In Asia there a large amount of non-compliance of individual’s rights. According to the results of Adjunct Professor of United States Labor Department Deputy Undersecretary for International Affairs Martha Newton in Asia and Pacific have a large number of victims of modern slavery. It compose 62 % which means 25 million people of that region (Fitzpatrick, 2017). In Africa this indicator shows 2.78 times lower than in Asia, which means that over than 9 million people. The smallest number among the all continents, in America, in that area the number of slaves constitute 5 percents, that signifies less than 2 million people, who suffer from bondage.
Some historical events of America had an effect on this index.
Abraham Lincoln ( President of US during the American civil war), made the Emancipation Proclamation (1863) declaring that ” all persons held as slaves are, and henceforward, shall be free”. This proclamation has changed the Constitution of the United States, by adding to it the 13th Amendment (1865), which prohibits the slavery (Pettinger,2013).
n In North America and in some areas of South Africa, distinctive races (mainly blacks and whites) ought to be isolated from one another. Those who had a high-status considered themselves higher than members of low-status races. Members of low-status had the limit in all cases and while members of the dominant race had an entrance to politics, economic resources, highly paid jobs. Members of low-status races have seen a lot physical and moral violence and forced labour. These infringements had an effect on self-esteem and social relationships (Smedley, 2017).
Martin Luther King was the leader who was against racism and defended the rights of the blacks. His ‘I have a dream’ speech inspired many people. For his activism to establish equal rights and ability to stop the boycott of public transportation (African Americans refused to use public transport (Montgomery, Alabama, U.S., 1955-1956)) King was awarded to the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 (Tavaana, 2017).
Kazakhstan has a comprehensive legal and regulatory system for ensuring the equality of citizens, regardless of race, ethnicity, language, origin, wealth or official status, place of residence, attitude to religion, beliefs or membership in a voluntary association or social group. The 14th article of the Constitution, which is in force since 2008, provides that no one shall be subjected to any discrimination (14th article of the Constitution of Kazakhstan, #44 paragraph).
Problem of breaking of human rights still needs to be considered as one of the biggest issues that humankind is facing now. Person’s rights and abilities to speak freely, to move without barriers, to believe in what one’s wants, to have a right to choose, to study and to live, must be the main aim of all countries over the world.
By the times of doing the research job, it was realized, why human rights violation is described as a global problem. It was hard to perceive that in this civilized world people were suffering from limited abilities and restricted capabilities for freedom. At first, infringement of human rights was mostly associated with Third World countries. But, it was comprehended that restriction of person’s rights is the problem which should worry every single citizen of the Earth who is able to think properly about world’s issues.
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