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In the 1940’s, the world was at war between Germany, Italy, Japan and the Allies. This whole war could have been very catastrophic. Nazi Germany was planning on taking over the world. During the war, a brave and smart group of people got together to win the war. This group began the Manhattan Project which would eventually lead to the creation of the Atomic Bomb.
The Manhattan Project was a Top Secret nuclear energy research program that produced the first atomic bomb. The Manhattan Project took place in Manhattan New York, 1942. The project employed in total of 120,000 americans. A atomic bomb is a powerful weapon that releases large amounts of energy when set off. The atomic bombs is what helped us the most during WW2. Many famous people were involved in the Manhattan Project. Some of the most famous people that were involved in the manhattan project was Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Richard Feynman, J. Robert Oppenheimer and Harold Urey. “Albert Einstein was a famous well known scientist during the early 20th century, Einstein was born in March 14, 1879.”- Wikipedia. He discovered many important scientific breakthroughs during his lifetime. Albert Einstein contributed nothing with the Manhattan Project. Einstein was hugely important to the Manhattan Project. He was the one who sent the Szilárd letter to President Roosevelt. The Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd, a American- Hungarian Physicist, and was later sent by albert Einstein to the United States President, Roosevelt. Leo chose Einstein because he was one of the most prestigious people during that time. The letter warned about how Germany had took most of the Czechoslovakian uranium mines and that we need uranium in order to create the Atomic Bomb.
After receiving the letter, President Roosevelt came to the conclusion that the letter needed authorization and authorized the creation of the Advisory Committee on Uranium. This helped in creating the Atomic Bomb enormously. J.Robert Oppenheimer was also a well known physicist involved in the Top Secret Manhattan Project. He was responsible for the research and design of an atomic bomb. Oppenheimer was born on April 22, 1904 and was part of the Ethical Culture Society. Enrico fermi was also a well known Physicist involved in the Project. Enrico fermi was an “Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world’s first nuclear reactor.” – Wikipedia. After Enrico Fermi’s discovery, “funds were allocated more freely, and the project advanced at breakneck speed.”- UShistory.org. Many facilities were built around the United States. After this amazing discovery, around two billion dollars was spent on research and development of the Atomic Bomb. The Manhattan Project was kept very secretly. The goal was to not let the Germans and Japanese learn about the project.
Even though 120,000 Americans were employed in the Manhattan Project, not all of them knew about the Atomic Bomb’s development. Only a small group of privileged people and inner scientist and officials knew about the development of the Atomic Bomb. The Manhattan Project was so secret that not even the Vice President at that time, Vice President Truman, knew about the Atomic Bomb’s development. He was only told about the Manhattan Project until he became President. “There was no public awareness or debate.”’- UShistory.orgIn the summer of 1945, Oppenheimer was ready to test the first Atomic Bomb. Scientist involved in the Manhattan Project got ready to watch the world’s first ever Atomic Bomb at Trinity Site near Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16, 1945. No one was safely prepared for the Atomic Bomb. No one knew how dangerous an Atomic Bomb was. People were too close when the first Atomic Bomb was detonated. A flash lit up the morning sky and was visible from 200 miles. The mushroom cloud reached 40,000 feet, obliterating windows of civilian homes up to 100 miles away. The Atomic Bomb was nothing like no one has seen.
The bomb was so powerful that it turned sand into glass. After the testing of the first Atomic Bomb, the government released a cover up story explaining that a huge ammunition dump exploded in the middle of the desert. Word reached the President that the project was successful. “The world had entered the nuclear age.”- UShistory.org With the help of Albert Einstein, the United States had got ahead in the race for the first Nuclear Weapon. The United States wanted to choose Japanese cities that would greatly affect them and make them want to surrender. Hiroshima was chosen as a good spot to drop the first bomb because Hiroshima was a very industrial city with a large population. Hiroshima had a population of 340,000 to 350,000 at the time of the bombing.” The bomb was dropped on Hiroshima at 8: 15 on August 6, 1945. The Atomic Bomb that was chosen to be dropped on Hiroshima was named, “The Little Boy”. This bomb contained 130 pounds of uranium. Another Japanese city that was targeted at was Nagasaki. Nagasaki was hit with a Atomic bomb in 1945, August 9th. This took place just three days after the bombing in Hiroshima. The Atomic Bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki was called, “Fat Man”. The Atomic Bomb exploded 1,650 feet over the city of Nagasaki.
These Atomic Bombs were so devastating that the Japanese surrendered on August 15, 1945. “The Japanese signed the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, 1945. A total of 70,000 people died instantly from the Hiroshima Bomb. In Nagasaki, 40,000 to 70,000 died instantly. Most of the victims did not die instantly from the bombings. Most usually died from leukemia and cancer that was caused from the radiation. Over time, 90,000 to 160,000 in total died from Hiroshima and 60,000 to 80,000 died in Nagasaki in total. The Manhattan Project was truly an amazing project.
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