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The New Deal Relief Programs

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Human-Written

Words: 660 |

Page: 1|

4 min read

Published: Jan 30, 2024

Words: 660|Page: 1|4 min read

Published: Jan 30, 2024

Table of contents

  1. Relief Programs
  2. Recovery Initiatives
  3. Reform Measures
  4. Evaluation of the New Deal's Successes
  5. Criticisms and Limitations of the New Deal
  6. Conclusion

The New Deal was a series of programs and policies implemented by the US government in response to the Great Depression, with the aim of providing relief, recovery, and reform in various aspects of society.

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Relief Programs

The Emergency Banking Act, enacted in 1933, aimed to stabilize the banking system and restore public confidence in financial institutions. It allowed the Treasury Department to inspect banks and enable those that were found to be financially sound to reopen. By mid-March, about 75% of the nation's banks had been reopened, and depositor confidence was restored.

The Civil Works Administration (CWA) was established in 1933 to provide temporary jobs during the winter emergency. It provided four million jobs, including manual labor for building and repairing schools, roads, parks, and other infrastructure. Additionally, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), headed by Harry Hopkins, distributed grants to the states for their relief efforts. The FERA provided assistance to millions of needy Americans, including the unemployed, aged, and ill.

Recovery Initiatives

The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) of 1933 aimed to boost agricultural prices by reducing surpluses. Farmers were paid to reduce crop acreage, and the AAA helped to increase farm income and raise commodity prices. The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) aimed to stimulate industrial production and combat unemployment. It established the National Recovery Administration (NRA) to regulate industry and labor practices, as well as the Public Works Administration (PWA) to create jobs through public works projects. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was established to provide for the economic development of the Tennessee Valley region, a poverty-stricken area that was prone to flooding and soil erosion. The TVA built dams for flood control and hydroelectric power, as well as engaged in reforestation and agricultural development.

Reform Measures

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 aimed to regulate the stock market and prevent fraud. It established the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to enforce federal securities laws and regulate the securities industry. The Social Security Act of 1935 established a national pension system for retirees, the unemployed, and the disabled, providing critical economic security to millions of Americans. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 established a national minimum wage, guaranteed time-and-a-half for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited child labor in industries engaged in interstate commerce.

Evaluation of the New Deal's Successes

The New Deal had a significant impact on reducing unemployment rates. From a peak of 24.9% in 1933, the unemployment rate fell to 14.3% in 1937. Relief programs such as the CWA and FERA provided tangible assistance to millions of Americans, improving their livelihoods and providing much-needed support during the Great Depression. The reform measures implemented during the New Deal, such as the Social Security Act and Fair Labor Standards Act, had long-term implications for American society, laying the foundation for future social welfare and labor regulations.

Criticisms and Limitations of the New Deal

The New Deal faced significant opposition from conservative politicians and business leaders who viewed it as an overreach of government power. Additionally, the New Deal did not fully address racial and gender disparities, as certain relief and job programs discriminated against minorities and women. Ultimately, the New Deal was unable to fully end the Great Depression, as the economy experienced a significant downturn in 1937-1938, and it wasn't until the onset of World War II that the US economy fully recovered.

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Conclusion

In conclusion, the New Deal was a series of ambitious programs and policies aimed at providing relief, recovery, and reform during the Great Depression. While it had its successes in reducing unemployment and providing vital support to millions of Americans, it also faced criticisms and limitations. The New Deal's long-term impact on American society cannot be understated, as many of its programs and reforms laid the groundwork for the modern social welfare state and labor regulations in the United States.

  1. "New Deal," The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project, accessed November 10, 2021, https://www2.gwu.edu/~erpapers/teachinger/glossary/new-deal.cfm.
  2. "Emergency Banking Relief Act: Definition and Facts," Encyclopedia Britannica, accessed November 10, 2021, https://www.britannica.com/event/Emergency-Banking-Relief-Act.
  3. "Tennessee Valley Authority," History.com, accessed November 10, 2021, https://www.history.com/topics/great-depression/tennessee-valley-authority.
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The New Deal Relief Programs. (2024, January 30). GradesFixer. Retrieved April 15, 2024, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-new-deal-relief-programs/
“The New Deal Relief Programs.” GradesFixer, 30 Jan. 2024, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-new-deal-relief-programs/
The New Deal Relief Programs. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-new-deal-relief-programs/> [Accessed 15 Apr. 2024].
The New Deal Relief Programs [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2024 Jan 30 [cited 2024 Apr 15]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-new-deal-relief-programs/
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