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The Principle Psychological Perspectives Applied to The Understanding of The Development of Individuals

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Words: 6032 |

Pages: 13|

31 min read

Published: Mar 17, 2023

Words: 6032|Pages: 13|31 min read

Published: Mar 17, 2023

Table of contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Psychodynamic theory
  3. Psychosexual stages
    Developmental Debates
    Advantages and disadvantages of the psychodynamic theory
  4. Cognitive development
  5. Developmental Debates
    Advantages and Disadvantages of the cognitive development
  6. Theories on developmental of self
  7. Advantages and disadvantages of Maslow and Rogers
    Maslow
    Carl Rogers
  8. Charles Cooley
  9. Developmental Debates
    Advantages and Disadvantages of the Looking Glass Theory
  10. Language Development
  11. Developmental debates
    Advantages of Skinner’s Theory
    Criticism of Skinner’s theory
  12. Chomsky- Language Acquisition
  13. Developmental Debates
    Advantages of Language Acquisition Device
    Disadvantages of Language Acquisition Device
  14. Attachment theories
  15. Developmental Debate
    Advantages and disadvantages of Bowlby’s attachment theory
  16. Conclusion

Introduction

In this assignment I will be acknowledging the different psychological perspectives that are applied today to acknowledge the behaviour and actions of individuals. In psychology there are abundant debates in regard to understanding how individuals behaviour shapes through society. One of the developmental debates is nature vs nurture. The nature vs nurture debates are based on the fact that either we are affected psychologically through our genetics or our surroundings. However, psychologists have determined a balanced view as they see individuals being born with a “blank state” and then their behaviour adjusting through the way they interact with others. Nature and Nurturing aspects of growing up can affect a person’s development during childhood as it is one of the stage of life where learning is efficient and reflects how you will fit in the environment. It can also affect adulthood as it is another stage in life where individuals are faced with challenging situations and have to make the right choices to have a fulfilling life. Another developmental debate is continuity vs discontinuity. This theory implies the type of ways individuals’ life adjust through changes. The continuity debate contrasts with the discontinuity debate as it looks into how the way someone changes are gradual and won’t stop. Whereas the discontinuity debate is in a cycle of different stages.

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Psychodynamic theory

Psychodynamic is one of the main key psychological perspectives that underlines individual’s behaviour through three principles. These principles are psyche, psychosexual stages and ego defences which was taught by Sigmund Freud. Freud assumed that our minds was spilt into three parts which was ID, ego and superego. The ID is the most important piece as it must be gratified for all the things that individuals desire. If the things individuals need is not gratified straight away, then it can cause them to have anxiety or be in several emotions of bad moods. An example of the ID is “I want a huge triple chocolate cake”. The ego is the decision-making parts of individuals minds which allow them to take risks. An example of the ego is “Eats a small piece of the cake”. The superego is the conscious mind that begins to face reality and judges their action through morals. “No more, I promised myself I am going to be on a diet for 4 days”.

Psychosexual stages

The psycho sexual stages consist of five developments and in order to go onto the next step individuals need to fully to complete the previous one. The first psychosexual stage is oral stage. Oral stage states that infants achieve fixation through sucking, biting and feeding. The oral stage implies that when individuals become fixated at a young age then when they age this fixation will stick with them as putting anything in their mouth such as a cigarette.

The second psychosexual stage is Anal stage. Anal stage implies that that if an individual has been introduced to potty training at an early age in their life then in the aftermath they will develop the mindset to be selfish and rich but if an individual has been introduced to potty training later on then they will adapt to be kind to others.

The third psychosexual stage is Phallic stage. The phallic stage is where children begin to extinguish the biological differences between themselves and began to form attraction with the opposite sex. Female children will begin to establish relationships with their fathers but see the mothers as a threat as they consider she is taking the love away. This is the same as male children who form more of a bond with their mothers and get jealous when they see their mum and dad together.

The fourth stage is latency period. The latency period is where the opposite sex thinks their sex is dominate than the other. Female children will develop relationships with other children their own sex and participate in doing the same activities as them. Female children will find it difficult to form conversations and develop relationship with the opposite sex and that will limit them developing.

The fifth stage is the genetic stage. During this stage female and male children began to develop physically and psychologically again as they experience sexual interests of the opposite sex and their curiosity will lead them to have deep feelings and feel in love with the opposite sex.

Developmental Debates

One of the developmental debates that fits in well with the psychodynamic theory is the nature and nurture debate. When it comes to the nature and nurture debate the psychodynamic takes both into account as it sees it as a big influence on how individuals develop psychologically and share experiences. Freud’s viewpoint is that individuals innate biological instincts from their genes (ID) which gratficates them into eating, aggressivity and sex. However, as they gradually develop they begin to have an understanding that the things that they need, can’t be given to them all the time as their superego takes control. Individuals learn from their surroundings what things may be acceptable for them and they take this into account to satisfy their egos.

Another developmental debate that fits in well is continuity vs discontinuity. Freud’s theory is known to be discontinuous as it implies every individual goes through the same stages and going through these stages may take time. Freud’s concept of psychosexual development is children need to pass the first stage of oral before they can go on to their next stage which is anal. If children are unable to move on to their next stage it lacks them developing maturely and may not be fixated on certain things. However, if they successful pass all the stages and move on to genital period then they will find out that their needs would be met as well understanding that forming relationships with the opposite sex an easier process.

A third developmental debate that fits in well with the psychodynamic theory is idiographic and nomothetic. Freud’s theory is seen as idiographic as he reviews case studies of each of his patients and how their biological differences determined how they found progressing onto the next stage and maturing. Adding on Freud’s uses childhood experiences for each individual to understand if they have a positive or negative outcome during their life. For example, in previous years, a female child found it hard to interact and form relationships with her father, meaning that she was unable to form relationships with the opposite sex and that limited her in progressing to the genital stage.

Advantages and disadvantages of the psychodynamic theory

One advantage of the psychodynamic theory is that it analyses on how past events had affected individuals today. For example, an individual who was drunk the night before but don’t have any conscious about it, may be related to the fact that one of his/her parents was an alcoholic and it has aroused the individual drinking behaviour even more.

Another advantage of the psychodynamic theory is that it has acted as an influenced to make individuals to have more therapy as individuals believe taking more therapies will help them tackle issues they face in their daily lives and feel better about themselves that they might have not felt in previous years.

A third advantage of the psychodynamic theory is that it takes nature and nurture into account. This is a strength since it highlights the importance of both and what role it has on an individual physical, emotional and intellectual development.

A disadvantage of the psychodynamic theory is that it lacked significant evidence. There were no statistical facts to show how the psychosexual stages affected children and how they would be later on. Freud’s used case studies on middle aged women from Vienna and not little children making his theory unreliable.

Another disadvantage of Freud’s theory is that it generalises everything as it assumes that children who were potty trained too early would later in life be selfish and arrogant. This is not true as one of my cousins was potty trained at an early age, but he learned to have a concept to be kind to others and share.

A third disadvantage of Freud’s theory is that it concentrated too much on sexual issues, it failed to see other social factors that affected individuals in their life time. His theory failed to determine that children from a dysfunctional family will find it hard to develop relationship with others and some will develop mental health problems such as depression.

Cognitive development

Cognitive development is another key theory in which can be used to apply how to study the intellectual knowledge of children and how it would affect their IQ as they develop into adults. Piaget became fascinated on the way children processing information and using their problem-solving skills to understand the situation better as the next time round they know what to do. Piaget believed that every child developed a schema on which they use to represent an action and then the schema advances to an assimilation where they assume one objects with another. The assimilation changes into accommodation in where the child broadens his or her concepts after new information being told to them. An example of a schema is a little girl sees a giraffe for the first time and calls it a donkey. The little girl assimilates process this information into her schema for a donkey. When the child accommodates this information, she takes into account of the different characteristics a giraffe has compared to a donkey, perhaps calling a giraffe, a donkey with stripes. When the child eventually learns the name of a giraffe, she accommodates this information.

Piaget states that there four stages that children go through and the more children progress through these stages, the more they begin to have a concept of problem solving skills and good speaking skills. The first stage children went through, according to Piaget was sensorimotor. The sensorimotor stage is where children effectively use their gross motor skills in order to get a feel of things around them but don’t have any conceptual thoughts. The second stage was pre-operational stage where children begin to think more maturely by having imaginations to convince them of make believe scenarios. However, at this stage children still lack complex concept such as the causes. The third stage is concrete operational, and this is the stage in where children begin to put together of the things they dream and reality two different things. The fourth stage is formal operational and at this stage children develop a good level of IQ to identify meanings of symbols behind numbers, shapes and science.

Developmental Debates

One of the developmental debates that fits in well with the cognitive development is idiographic and nomothetic. Piaget’s theory is seen as nomothetic as he studies the similarities of children’s intellectual skills when they are in their infant stage. Another reason why the cognitive development is nomothetic is that Piaget used conservation tests to identify children’s reasoning when the water is poured into different shaped beakers. After Piaget did these tests he could understand the behaviours of infants.

Another developmental debate that fits in well with the cognitive development is continuous vs discontinuous, the cognitive development theory is discontinuous as it implies every individual need to progress successful into every stage to be able to have excellent understanding of how they can percept things around them.

A different developmental debate that fits in well with the cognitive development is nature vs nurture. The cognitive development has a balance view on nature and nurture. The cognitive development says that children inherit characteristics such as intelligence from their parents and their intelligence develop through going to school, reading books, watching educational documentaries and following the footsteps of their parents.

Advantages and Disadvantages of the cognitive development

One advantage of the cognitive development is that it has a huge amount of significant quantitative data to back up its findings of children’s intellectual understanding and the barriers that may cause them to make mistakes. The conservation tests produced by Piaget showed that most children find it difficult to reason because they have not reach the stage where their cognitive development has fully growed.

Another advantage of the cognitive development is that it had showed the ways children intellectual skills differ from adults. This means in primary and secondary schools, teachers will realise that some children have different type of needs and these needs to be met in order for them to understand what has been taught. Teachers can draw pictures on a white board to symbolise a word or ask the children to go into group activities to present a presentation on a topic.

A third advantage of the cognitive development is that it has been applied in therapies such as CBT, which can be used to be treated personality disorder found in children.

One disadvantage of the cognitive development is that it does not consider other cultures while forming theories on children’s learning patterns as parents from different countries have different ways of helping their children to learn whereas it is through watching educational tv shows or giving them piles of nonfiction books to read. The cognitive development failed to expand on how in low economy countries most children resources don’t have so they can read and write and won’t have the chance to go to school to be educated.

Another disadvantage of the cognitive development is the mountains experiment which was presented by Margaret Donaldson and Martin Hughes. Both psychologists presented these experiments to two different children and the children understand and knew what to do.

A third disadvantage of the cognitive development relating to Donaldson’s critic is that she reviewed interviews where children were asked about traumatising events and they seemed to recall every little detail. Donaldson’s also identified that children in pre-school recall information very clearly than those who started primary school, and this suggest that the stages that every child had to go through to gain that cognitive development was in some ways ridiculous as every child is unique and some children have a higher IQ at a younger age in their life.

Theories on developmental of self

The theories on developmental of self was to try and understand in what ways individuals can come to terms and love themselves for who they were and what particular factors contribute to it. Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow and Charles Cooley all had similar but different perspectives on developmental of self. Self-concept is how individuals view themselves through the words and actions of those surrounded them. An example would be a mother always saying to her daughter she’s hideous and this will contradict in the daughter’s mind she is hopeless, and no guy would want to be with her, lowering her self-esteem and slowly making her want to change her appearance. Self-esteem is the level of pride individuals have for themselves as a whole.

The difference between the two is that self-concept is more of a rational thinking about how individual views themselves, but self-esteem is the evaluation of the individual’s self and emotions.

Self-actualisation is defined as individuals meeting all their P.I.E.S needs and individuals who are realistic, normally tend to be sensitive when they are faced with a problem. Individuals who have self-actualisation share unique characteristics such as social interest. They consider the welfare of others and the society in which they are surrounded by. Their relationships with their loved ones are seen to be bounded and up close. Another characteristic an individual might show a sense of humour. Individuals with a sense of humour are able at laugh at anything, including their own jokes and makes sure that their jokes don't offend other individuals. Also, they accept themselves as not being perfect. They are comfortable with their own flaws as those around them. Another of their characteristics could be that they are independent as they make their own life choices and don't let others take control of their lives. An individual who failed to achieve self-actualisation will feel isolated from other people and won’t show any emotions towards others, they would have psychotic breakdowns as they feel as if their life term goals are crumbling down in one go. Adding on the individual will not be comfortable with their flaws as they are always looking in the mirror on how they can become perfect.

Carl Rogers develop the basic principles of self-actualising by saying that every individual need to have a self-actualising tendency. Self-actualising tendency is when individuals know what goals they want in life, so that they can prosper and feel proud of what they achieved. An example of a self-actualising tendency is an individual doing all their coursework, participating in class and reading documentaries based on law if they have the mindset of becoming a lawyer.

If an individual self and actual self-clash together, it can cause the individual to feel worthless and suicidal as they didn’t reach their expectations. Individuals will feel less motivated to carry on pursuing their goals such as going to university to get a high paid job which will pay for all their expenses. It will result to them having lack of confidence around others and may feel envious of those around them doing better things.

Advantages and disadvantages of Maslow and Rogers

Maslow

One advantage of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is that it looks at the full scale of the individual and how much they value themselves. It also highlights on the conception that individuals have free will to do what they think will please them and learn from their mistakes.

Another advantage of Maslow’s theory is that it states what individuals need to make them stable and have a better future as an adult. This is realistic as qualitive research such as documentaries has shown that if a child has received their basic needs and affection then it would be easier for them to reach their self-actualisation.

A third advantage of Maslow’s theory is that it focuses on the individual as a whole and observe what might make them show challenging behaviour or distress with not continuing with life.

One criticism of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is that it doesn’t define other factors that may happen in the person’s life. An example is a girl in her child hood years had received everything she could want such as food, money and love from her parents but as she grows up into an adult she lacks self-actualisation as she isn’t aware of her future goals in life and that caused her to have suicidal thoughts.

Another criticism of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is that in a way it doesn’t help with some therapies and resolve disorders such as PTSD. In some cases, it can worsen the individual condition.

Carl Rogers

One advantage of Carl Rogers’ theory is that he defines what self-actualisation is and what individuals need to do to gain high self-esteem, so they can become stable.

Another advantage of Carl Rogers theory is that it has been used in schools to help students to develop their confidence on what they learn and use a progression sheet to help them to decide what career they might want to go to in the aftermath.

A disadvantage of Carl Rogers is that some individuals are limited to free will. An example is a child who was raised by dysfunctional or controlling parents who felt their decisions was the best for the child.

Charles Cooley

Cooley was another psychologist who had a unique perspective on the theory based on Ideal self. Charles Cooley stated that every individual, in some way needed to have a looking glass self. The looking-glass self is known to be the perception of how individuals are perceived by others such as being intelligent or awkward to be around with. Individuals develop feelings based on their impressions of their observations. Individuals might develop their self-identities based on both correct and incorrect perception of how others sees them. An example of looking-glass self is a teacher, grading a student's paper critically and giving it back to the student as they believe that the student has full potential to achieve a higher grade. However, this will make the student have many assumptions such as they are not good at making an analysis. This will make the student have a negative perception and that means they would put less effort in doing well in the rest of their essays and goes against in what the teacher wanted in the first place. Another example is a girl wearing a short dress to a public place she might have the positive perception that others thinks she's beautiful but might also have the negative perception that other individuals are making nasty comments behind her back. This will make her lack confidence and won't have the courage to show a sense of self-worth.

Developmental Debates

One of the developmental debates that fits in with the looking glass self is the nature vs nurture debate. When it comes to the nature and nurture debate Cooley is more sided with the nurture view as although individuals are born with certain characteristics from their genes, they become a different person by living a certain area and socialising themselves with a certain group. For example, if an individual lived in an area where it was posh they would understand they have to be well-behaved and polite as if they don’t their reputation may be ruined. However, if they lived in a ghetto area in a part of a town, they would see listening to trap music out loud as not an issue and may not care what other people around them think.

Another developmental debate that fits in well with the looking glass self is continuity vs discontinuity. When it comes to the continuity vs discontinuity debate Cooley is more sided with the continuity side as it sees the changes individuals go through as a gradual process where overtime they would build up the thinking, talking and creativity skills. Also, throughout those years individuals will build up their self-esteem either positive or negative through the words friends and families tell about them.

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Looking Glass Theory

One of the advantages of Cooley’s concept of the looking glass self is that it briefly explains how the environment can help individuals to socialise and develop both a positive and a negative perspective about themselves just by observing what people around them say.

Another advantage of the looking glass theory is that it helps psychologists and other professionals to come to terms on how to treat depression and understand why some individuals may take drugs in the first place. Perhaps it was due to the fact they were influenced by their peers to take drugs as they will gain some sort of fascination.

A third advantage of Cooley’s looking glass theory is that it helps underlines how the looking glass theory can build a person’s ideal self and self-esteem. Individuals can make judgements just by reviewing their previous mistakes of what others told about what they think they should change.

One disadvantage of Cooley’s looking glass theory is that it states individuals don’t have free will to make the decisions they believe it is right as they overlook what those around tell them how they should be. This makes some individuals fear if they make their own choices then it can lead to them to make the wrong choices in life and take them to a pathway in where they would be stuck and have to pick up the pieces.

Another disadvantage of Cooley’s looking glass theory is that some individuals live in an isolated area where they haven’t been around people who helped them to change or convinced them in ways they can improve, some individuals don’t have a positive role model that they can look up to and this cause them to disengage with society and not show any emotional feelings towards others that they might meet.

Language Development

There were two theories who established their viewpoints on the language development on children and how it would affect them when they age. These theorists were named Skinner and Chomsky. Skinner established his theory which was called operant conditioning and did several tests on animals to understand how it would contrast with how individuals behave and how their personalities change. Skinner recognised that three different types of responses that shadow alongside the behaviour that the individual display. These responses were neutral operant, reinforcers and punishers. Skinner underlined that when an individual display a particular behaviour they can be given a reward such as a sweet to continue their good behaviour or they can be punished with a detention to let them know that their behaviour was unacceptable and that will convince them next time to display acceptable behaviour so that they won’t be in detention again. Skinner used the conductions of the rats in a box to define his experiment. Once the rat stayed inside the box, it learnt to acclimate with the surroundings it was in and look further. In due course the rat notices the lever and understood that every time they pull the lever, food will come out.

Developmental debates

One of the developmental factors that fits in well with the behaviourist perspective is nature vs nurture. Skinner’s theory sided on more with the nurture side as it states that an individual’s intelligence and other personality characteristics is determined by the environment that they are surrounded in and not the genetics that have been passed through their ancestors. Skinner underlines that going to school, reading books and participating in discussions is what builds up an individual’s IQ and helps them establish what is seem as right and wrong so that in the aftermath they are more likely to receive praises and rewards, so they can continue displaying good behaviour.

Another developmental debate that fits in well with the behaviourist perspective is nomothetic vs Idiographic. Skinner’s theory sided on more with the nomothetic side as it looks at the characteristics that every individual share. Skinner used laboratories to test how different animals including rats and cats to investigate and conclude how their behaviour would change when they are in a cramped environment. Skinner use this experiment to evaluate that individuals have the same qualities as animals, as they respond to something in order to get a reward or a punishment.

Advantages of Skinner’s Theory

One advantage of Skinner’s behaviourist perspective is that it has provided different techniques that teachers can apply to shape behaviour. For example, in primary schools, students are giving stickers and student of the day rewards.

Another advantage of Skinner’s behaviourist perspective is that how the nature and nurture debate relate to the individual. For example, if a child was associated in a violent area with violent people, then when they reach their adult years they will become violent towards others.

A third advantage of Skinner’s behaviourist perspective is that it offers useful methods which can be used to help children learn languages and understand the meaning of positive reinforcement.

Criticism of Skinner’s theory

One disadvantage of Skinner’s theory is that he compares humans to rats. This is inaccurate as the way humans think and develop their actions is completely different to the way to rats, who have a slow mentality.

Another disadvantage of Skinner’s theory is that it only takes into account of one method of dealing with children and doesn’t examine other factors such as mood swings, which can be hard to promote reinforcements.

Chomsky- Language Acquisition

The language acquisition differentiates from the behaviourist perspective which was addressed by Skinner. Chomsky believed that every child has a language acquisition device when they are first born, and they process information and knowledge from their brain. Chomsky also believed that the language acquisition device was responsible for making sure the way children learn language and the morals alongside it was a rapid process.

Adding on to this point Chomsky, establishes that every child will learn how to walk and don’t need their parents to teach them later on.

Developmental Debates

One of the developmental factors that fits in well with the language acquisition theory is continuity vs discontinuity. The Language Acquisition Device is discontinuous as it states that every child goes through the same five stages and within the stages, children develop on how to interpret language by listening to the words that comes with their career mouth. The first stage of LAD is receptive, and this is where children picked up small words such as bebe and dada. The second stage is early production, and this is where children assimilate different words and phrases, though they might make slight mistakes. When children reach their last stage their vocabulary and grammar develop and are be able are to say complex sentences and found writing easier- due to them practising their handwriting.

Another developmental factor that fits in well with the language acquisition theory is nature vs nurture. The Language Acquisition Device sides on more with nature as it believes that individuals are born with biological characteristics that helps them to percept how language works.

Advantages of Language Acquisition Device

One advantage of the Language Acquisition Device is that helps adults to understand that children would correct them if they are grammatically wrong.

Another advantage of the Language Acquisition Device is that it helps schools to understand that every child approximately learns at the same rate, regardless of their language.

Disadvantages of Language Acquisition Device

One disadvantage of the Language Acquisition Device is that it has not been proved that it exists as individuals can’t see it. There have been no experiments that showed that the brain has a device inside it and it would be hard to do an experiment on a child’s brain as it may be illegal, and the parents would disagree.

Another disadvantage of the Language Acquisition Device is it doesn’t analyse that children with special needs will find it hard to interpret language. One psychologist did a study on a child who was born to deaf parents and found that the child uses the television to help build up his language and only use sign language to form discussions with his parents.

A third disadvantage of the Language is that it focuses to much on the nature side and fails to analyse that children are also influenced by social interactions.

Attachment theories

John Bowlby established the importance of children forming important attachments with one of their parents as it would contradict how their behaviour would be. Bowlby states that a child forms a bond with it’s parents when it is first born, and the bond builds up when they reach their infancy stage. Bowlby exclaims that the attachment between the infant and the mother is clear when the infant follows the mother everywhere she goes and when the mother is gone, and the infant is replaced with another adult, the infant cries as he/she is unfamiliar with this person and would find it hard to make a bond. However, Bowlby also states that if an individual did not build any attachment with their parent, it can cause them to have an attachment disorder and make it hard them for build relationships with other people as they might turn cold towards them.

Developmental Debate

One developmental debate that fits in well with the attachment theory is the nature vs nurture debate. The attachment theory sides on more with nature as it sees that babies and infants hang on to their mothers due to intrinsic factors and not environmental factors even though environmental factors play a big part a child’s life. Bowlby states that due to biological characteristics, children will do worse in schools if they don’t have their mothers to cling within the first 3-5 years of their life.

Advantages and disadvantages of Bowlby’s attachment theory

One advantage of Bowlby’s theory is that he used different case studies and experiments to prove his point. One of them was the 44 thieves. The 44 thieves showed that 17 juveniles were separated from their mother at the early age of five and most of their life they were associated with crime as they didn’t have any motherly figure helping them on how to do the right things. Bowlby’s experiment showed that the criminals showed a lot of affectionless psychopathy and didn’t feel any remorse for their victims.

Another advantage of Bowlby’s theory is that it expands on it’s guidelines on how the continuity hypothesis, internal working model and maternal deprivation hypothesis helps to draw conclusions if children was face with any traumas in the past so that they can be helped. These guidelines were monotropic as Bowlby sees that it contradicts to the way individuals form future relationships with others and how their emotional experiences would show due to their childhood experiences with their mothers.

One disadvantage of Bowlby’s attachment theory is that it states that children form relationships with their mothers. This is false as when I was born my father was one of the first people who I formed a bond with. Also, some children may not have mothers when they grow up, they may be brought up by their father.

Another disadvantage of Bowlby’s attachment theory is the true story of the koluchova twins. The twins were tortured and abused by their stepmother behind closed down and neglected as there was not given nourished food and a warm place to sleep but as soon what was found out that happened to them, they were adopted by two sisters who showed them love and tendency and taken to a special school where they learned to play the piano and do crafts. This case study criticises Bowlby’s point as it proves that children who were abused when they were younger, do not necessarily become criminals and find it hard to form relationships with others when they are older.

A third disadvantage of Bowlby’s attachment theory is of the strange situation experiment which was presented by Mary Ainsworth. The strange situation experiment was to see how an infant behaviour changes when the mother leaves the room and they are presented with a stranger. At first the infant cries as they are unfamiliar with the adult, but as soon as they get used to the adult and the adult does all the things their mother does for them (such as hugging them), they will eventually form a close bond and don’t want the stranger to leave. This contradicts to Bowlby’s theory as it states that the mother doesn’t have the primary care giver, it could be anyone as long as they meet the infants need.

Conclusion

In conclusion, I believe that all the theories have a strong point in analysing on how children develop and behave through interacting with others around them and their biological characteristics. For example, Freud explains on the stage of how children become fixated and develop relationships with others from different sex. But however, Freud failed to expand on that some children during their phallic stage won’t be able to form such relationships as they may only have one parent who is in charge of teaching them how to potty train. Adding on I see Skinner’s theory important as it relates to me when I was a child. Skinner defines the importance of nurture on intelligence and states that going to school and reading books will help to develop knowledge on their grammar and other things. I somehow sees Chomsky’s theory as ridiculous as I don’t understand where the LAD in our brain is and how it helps us to function and take in more than 2000 words.

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I see Bowlby’s and Maslow’s the strongest as they both show the concepts of how relationships can shape individuals’ behaviour and what role it plays in helping them reach their full potential or going into the wrong paths to become criminals. Bowlby is partially correct on his theory as one case study of Aileen Wuornos should that she didn’t have any mother figure and was abused and raped by her grandfather and other male people she trusted, leading her to have a trouble adulthood.

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The Principle Psychological Perspectives Applied to the Understanding of the Development of Individuals. (2023, March 17). GradesFixer. Retrieved May 21, 2024, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-principle-psychological-perspectives-applied-to-the-understanding-of-the-development-of-individuals/
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