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Photosynthesis is the process described by this equation This equation shows the complex 2 steps process that takes place in the chloroplast of green plants. The end product is glucose, but the complex organic molecule such as carbohydrates, amino acid, lipids, and nucleic acids. Photosynthesis is important because it is the biological process that produces > it produces complex organic molecules that are needed for growth It produces oxygen which is used for respiration
When plants are eaten, the organic molecules are used to provide energy to the organisms higher in the food chain. The oxygen which is produced is released into the atmosphere and is available for other organisms.
Structure of chloroplast- Thylakoid-: This is the 2 membrane that forms the envelope, chloroplast that contains a third internal membrane. The inside portion of the thylakoid is called thylakoid lumen, this contains plastocyanin and other molecules that are required for the transport of electrons. Thylakoid is a collection of membranes that are stacked together and these stacks are called grama. Granum this is a flat membrane that increases the surface area and vol ratio and small internal volumes quickly accumulate ions. Intergranular thylakoid: Stroma – the stroma is an aqueous matrix that is present inside the double membrane envelope. the inside components, as well as other solutes, are dispersed into the stroma. The stroma is rich in proteins and it contains several enzymes that are necessary for the vital cellular processes. The DNA in chloroplast is also present in the stroma along with the ribosomes and other molecules that are required for protein synthesis. The starch synthesized through photosynthesis is stored in the stoma in the form of granules.
Photosynthetic pigments, this is a colored biological compound that is present in the chloroplast and photosynthetic bacteria and this captures light energy for photosynthesis. In plants, the two types of pigments are chlorophylls and carotenoids. These are colored because they absorb particular wavelengths of light and reflect others. The reason plants are green is because of the chlorophyll pigments, it gives the plants the green color by reflecting green light. The carotenoids reflect red, orange or yellow light. ATP is an important molecule that is found in all living organisms. It diffuses around the cell and provides energy for cellular processes. Adenosine triphosphate is made in the light-dependent reaction in photosynthesis from Adenosine diphosphate and organic phosphate group p this requires energy. ATP releases energy in the light-independent reaction and forms a bond between inorganic phosphate groups, which then produces ADP and an inorganic phosphate group.
NADP and NADPH is the coenzyme that is involved in the photosynthesis reactions. The compound is a nucleotide that contains an adenine base and a nicotinamide base. The nucleotides are joined through the phosphate groups. There is an extra phosphate on the ribose of the adenine containing nucleotide. NADP can accept electrons that are reduced to NADP these are often called NADPH. This is oxidized back to NADP releasing electrons. In photosynthesis, the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP using energy from sunlight and this is called photophosphorylation. There are only 2 sources of energy available to living organisms these are sunlight, and reduction and oxidation redox reactions. All organism produces ATP. There are two stages of photophosphorylation and these are Cyclic and Noncyclic photophosphorylation. Stages of photophosphorylation In the process of photosynthesis and the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP, this uses the energy of sunlight and this is called phtotphosplation. Photophosphorylation light energy is used to create a high energy electron donor and a lower energy electron acceptor. Cyclic Photophosphorylation only involves photosystem 1 and does not use reduction of NADP+ When the light is absorbed by photosystem 1 the electrons will enter into the electron transport chain to produce ATP. the de-energized electron will return to the photosystem restoring the electron supply. The electron will then return to the NADP+ which means it hasn’t been reduced and water is not needed to replenish the electron supply Noncyclic photophosphorylation is in two-stage involving two different photosystems. Photosystem II and photosystem I and it does require the reduction NADP+. The noncyclic occurs in the frets of the stroma. When the light is absorbed by photosystem II the electrons that have excited will enter the electron transport chain to produce ATP while the photoactivation of photosystem I result in the release electrons which reduces NADH+ to form NADPH. The photolysis of water will release the electrons which then replaces the electrons that are lost by photosystem II. Photolysis is the splitting of chemical compounds by light energy or photons. There are two steps to photosynthesis: this is light dependent and light independent.
The light-dependent reaction uses photosynthetic pigments that are organized into photosystems which converts light energy into chemical energy Eg. ATP and NADPH. The situated membranes are light harvesting systems called photosystems. There are 2 photosystems and these are Photosystem I and Photosystem II both of these have chlorophyll at their centers. The light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis is the first major process in photosynthesis as it uses light energy which is then converted into chemical energy such as ATP and NADP. This takes place across the chloroplast thylakoids membranes, this is between the chloroplast stroma and thylakoid space. In the thylakoids, there are 3 steps involved in the reaction that occurs in the specialized membrane discs in the chloroplast and these are Excitation of photosystems by light energy.
Reduction of NADP+ and photolysis of water first step is the Excitation of photosystems by light energy. This is when the photosystems are transferred in groups of photosynthetic pigments which includes chlorophyll is embedded in the thylakoid membrane. Then the photosystems that are classed according to the maximum absorption wavelengths Photosystem I equals 700 nm and photosystem II equals 680nm. When the photosystems absorb the light energy they are delocalized electrons in the pigments that become energized or excited. Then these electrons that have been excited are transferred to carrier molecules in the thylakoid membrane. 2. The second stage of a light dependant is the Production Of ATP by The Electron Transport Chain. The electrons that existed from the photosystems II P680 are transferred to an electron transport chain in the thylakoid membrane. Then as the electrons pass through the chain they lose their energy, this is then translocated into H+ ions into the thylakoid. This then builds up the protons in the thylakoid which creates an electrochemical gradient or a proton motive force. The H+ ions will return to the stroma which is along the proton gradient by the transmembrane enzyme ATP synthase chemiosmosis The ATP synthase uses the passage of H+ ions to catalyze the synthesis of ATP from ADP+Pi. This process is called Photophosphorylation as the light provided the initial energy source for ATP production. The de-energized electrons from Photosystem II will be taken up by Photosystem I. 3. This is the last step of the Light Dependant. It is the Reduction of NADP+ and the Photolysis of water. The electrons that have excited from Photosystem I can be transferred to a carrier molecule and used to reduce NADP+This then forms NADPH, which is needed in the conjunction with ATP for the light-independent reactions. The electrons that are lost from the photosystem I am replaced by the de-energized electrons from the Photosystem II The electrons lost from Photosystem II are replaced by electrons that are released from water by Photolysis. The water is split by the light energy into H+ ions, that are used in chemiosmosis, and oxygen is released as a by-product. Light-independent the light-independent reaction, the reactions use chemical energy derived from the light-dependent reaction to form organic molecules. In the light-independent reaction happen in the stroma, this is the fluid/ filled space of the chloroplast. The light-independent reaction is also known as the Calvin cycle and it involves the 3 steps:
Carboxylation of ribulose bisphosphate
Reduction of glycerate
PhosphateRegeneration of ribulose bisphosphate
Photosynthesis is controlled by enzymes which are sensitive to temperature fluctuations although the light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis is not affected by changes in temperature. Light is dependant on temperature and the reactions are catalyzed by enzymes. When the enzymes reach their optimum temperature the whole reaction increases as the temperature increases the rate of reaction increases, as the reactant have greater kinetic energy, this results in more collision. Once it’s reached its peak the rate begins to decrease as enzymes become denatured and the reaction stops.
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