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the Role of Prakriti in the Causation of Diabetic Retinopathy

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The word Prakriti has been derived from ”Prakarshena karoti iti Prakriti” The word Prakriti is derived from Pra + Kriti (to create or to act). Pra means the “beginning”, “commencement” or “source of origin” and kriti means “to perform” or “to form”. Put together Prakriti means “natural form” or “original form” or “original source”. Prakriti is one of the most important concepts described in Ayurveda and it is decided at the time of conception .It is the complete psychosomatic architect of an individual which starts to take shape in mother’s womb. Thus generated Prakriti helps in understanding the health and disease state of an individual and helps in maintaining health and also for treatment when diseased. The word Prakriti has varying meanings in different contexts like:

  1. Svabhava – nature.
  2. Eashwara – God.
  3. Kala – time.
  4. Yadrischa – spontaneity.
  5. Niyati – rule, destiny, fate.
  6. Parinama – transformation, change.

Acharya Susrutha denotes Prakriti using the term Avyaktha. According to him, the unmanifest is the causative source of all beings, causeless, characterized by satwa, rajas and tamas, having eight forms and manifesting cause of entire universe. It is one and location of many souls as sea is of watery streams. This prakriti is beginning less, eternal causeless and omnipresent.

Susrutha has also used the term Prakriti to denote the ashtaprakriti which include the avyaktha, mahath, ahankara, and five thanmatra.

The Prakriti of a person is determined by the predominance of dosha at the time of fertilization. The enhanced doshas present in the sukra (male gamete)and the arthava (female gamete) at the time of conception, continues to remain throughout the life, from birth to death without causing any disease. In Ashtanga Sangraha, Vaghbata says, at the same time of commencement of life, by the union of sukra and arthava, the doshas which are predominant confer their own character to garbha (foetus). Just as venom of poisonous organism is harmless to it, there arises three kinds of Prakriti- Hina(Poor),Madhya (moderate) and Uthama(best). Samadhatuprakriti arisisng from the combination of all three doshas in equal proportion is ideal. Dwidoshaja prakriti arisisng from the combination of any two of the doshas are bad. Thus Prakriti is that which constitute the physical as well as psychological makeup of an individual.

Prakriti is a non-pathological humoral (dosha) status which is inherent in the individual from birth to death, which becomes distinct since the time of fertilization mediated by the maternal and paternal activities.

According to Acharya Susrutha and Charaka,Prakriti is determined at the time of fertilization due to the predominance or increased status of dosha which is normal or physiological. It remains unchanged from fertilization till death.

According to Vagbhata the Prakriti remains inheriting throughout the life prior to death. Ayurveda categorizes human population in to sub population such as Vata Prakriti, Pitta Prakriti and Kapha Prakriti or their combination on the basis of anatomical, physiological, and psychological characteristics with completely avoidance of racial, ethical, and geographical consideration. Ayurveda has designed Prakriti such as Vata, Pitta and Kapha or combination of either two or three of them. All individuals will be influenced by the doshas, or will be having the features of these doshas. But we consider an individual as VATA prakriti, PITTA prakriti, or KAPHA prakriti according to the features found in them. These individuals are prone to get diseases according to their prakriti, ie, Vata prakriti individual is more prone to get vata predominant diseases if he is following a vata vitiating life style. If we know our prakriti we can change our life style for maintaining the doshas in equilibrium, so that health is maintained.

The pre-natal factors that influence the formation of prakriti are:

  1. Atmaja Bhavas: Atmaja bhavas directly related to atma are yoni(taking birth in such womb), self-realization, chetana (consciousness), ayu (life span), whereas those related to higher order psyche are iccha (liking), dvesha (disliking), sukha (desire for happiness) dukha (sorrow) and prayatna (efforts).
  2. Satvaja bhavas: satvaja bhavas are factors derived from satva-psych/mind. The psychological endowment of the child is determined by psychological state of mother and father during pregnancy and purva janmakrita karma (actions performed in previous life). These factors are Bhakti(liking), Moha (attachment), Gambeerya (seriousness), Bhaya (fear), sheela (conduct), Tyaga (detachment), Tikshnata (sharpness), Krodha (anger), shoucha ( purity), Matsara (strong desire) , Mriduta (softness), Tandra (drowsiness), Dvesha (enemity), shourya (valor), smriti (memory), utsaha (enthusiasm)
  3. Matraja Bhavas: Twak (skin), Mamsa (flesh), Blood, Medas (fat), Nabhi (umbilicus), hridaya (heart), Kloma, Yakrit (liver), Pleeha (spleen), Basti (bladder), Purishadhana (rectum), Kshudrantra (mecentry), Vapa vapavahana (omentum) are inherited by maternal side.
  4. Pitraja Bhavas: Kesha (hair), Nakha (nails) Loma( small hair of the body), Danta (teeth), Asthi (bones),Sir a(vessels), Snayu (muscles), Dhamni (arteries) are inherited by paternal inheritance in an individual.

Factors derived from Panchamahabhootas

The different pachabhootas contribute to many factors of the body constitution, they are:

  1. Akasa mahabhoota- Shabda, srotra, Laghuta, sukshmata, viveka
  2. Vayu mahabhoota – Sparsa, sparsanendriya, rukshta, prerna, dhatuvyuhana, cheshta
  3. Agni mahabhoota – Rupa, dharshan, prakasa, pachana, ushnata,
  4. Ap mahabhoota – Rasa, rasanendriya, sheeta, mriduta, snehana, kleda
  5. Parthiva mahabhoota – Gandha, ghrana, gourav, sthairya, mrtutva

Post-natal factors:

Satmyaja Bhavas (congenious factors): Satmya is elucidated as use of regimen and diet which is interconnected with the body. Importance of satmyaja bhava can be ascertained from the fact that if asatmya things are not taken, then couples do not become infertile and also fetus is not defective. The satmyaja factors are Arogya, Analasya, Alolupa, (freedom from diseases, laziness, and greed), svara (excellence of voice), varna medha, indriya prasada (clarity of senses), oju, Ayu (life), Bala (strength).

Prakriti has important role in maintenance of health as well as causation of diseases. We know that a person having predominant doshic constitution following the same dosha vitiating ahara and vihara and also if the kala , desha etc. are also favourable for the causation of the disease , then there is high chance of getting that particular doshic predominant disease. Most of the diseases have some dosha predominance, so people having that dosha predominant prakriti are more prone to get the disease, for example kapha dosha predominant prakriti people are more susceptible to get kapha doshic diseases.

As we all know diabetic retinopathy is a disease occurring the retinal musculature and it is one among the major complication of diabetes. We know that diabetes is a disease caused by kapha medo dusti and diabeti retinopathy is a disease occurring the eyes, which is said to be the seat of pitta. So patients with diabetes should avoid kapha and pitta vitiating aharas and viharas to keep the doshas in equilibrium, so that the disease is controlled. This study aims to find the role of prakriti in the causation of diabetic retinopathy. We know that when the doshas, desa, rthu and prakriti become predominant of the same doshas, the disease occurs or it is difficult to cure the disease. So if the prakriti of the individual is different from the dushyas, desa and rtu, the disease does not occur or if occurs it is easily curable.

At times one needs to sit back and relax after a busy day and there is no better way to do that than watching a play. I had the opportunity of watching traditional Russian play entitled Three Sisters.

The play which was a Brian Friel’s adaptation of the original play by Anton Chekhov first opened in the Guildhall, Derry on the 8th of September, 1981. The play directed by Gordon Reinhart took place at the Special Events Centre (SPEC) situated at the Boise State University campus. I went in early long before the play started and had some ample time of examining the stage, being a play that is driven by character I sat on the second row so that I could clearly see the facial expression of the actors. The stage did not have any drapes, thus one was able to see the all the walls of the theatre itself. There was a projection screen that was hanged at the back to replicate the outdoors. There were also two tables on both the two ends of the stage.

Plot Summary

The show started in a very unique way with the sisters delivering a speech from the director. The play is about three blood sisters but with very different characters that it is hard to believe they are actually sisters. Samantha berry played as Olga is a very staunch sister with deep religious beliefs, Thompson Tiara played as Marsha, and Irina played by Tess Gregg. The play revolves around love and morals, Samantha berry is portrayed as a person who believes in morals and does not entertain any immorality, she does all that she can do within her power to ensure the family holds together. Marsha is depicted as being sad she is married but is not in love with the husband, which is absurd as it defeats logic why she got married in the first place to a person she does not love. The third sister brings out the immorality in the society; she is young and desires to explore the world, even if it is only Moscow. In the play she stands for the young men and women from the countryside and their desires to go to the big city no matter the cost. Irina has only just turned 20, but has had affairs with very many men yet she is the youngest among the three sisters. The supporting cast also does a good job in trying to bring out the characters of the three sisters.

Acting

Throughout the play Olga’s character is complemented through the facial expression of the actor and the voice. Being a staunch sister, Olga is very soft in her talking but firm about whatever issue she is saying. All the other characters playing the role of the other two sisters also do a commendable job in portraying the characters they are playing Sound Effects The sound designer Sam Brakel did a wonderful job in terms of designing the sound effects; the sound effects almost matched that from the original play. They had the gun shots, wind wheel and the piano player Megan Choate, who was actually playing live, did an exemplary job. The entire sound effects crew that the sound effects complimented the different scenes.

Costumes

Being that the play has a Russian background, the costume designer by the name Darrin J. Pufall, did a commendable job in choosing the costumes for the actors especially the three sisters. The blue costume selected for Olga was perfect as it complemented her character. She wore different types of blue shades for the different scenes but they still looked the same. The black costume designed for Marsha depicted her character her love life is dull, she is married but not happy in her marriage thus making the black costume very ideal for her. Her different shades of black matched very well which is extra ordinary as most shades of black do not match. Irina’s choice of costume was also well chosen being a young lady who wants to explore the world, the white pants that she wore complimented her character as an outgoing lady.

Conclusion

A play is as good as the actors, if a play is meant to be jovial and the actors are not, then the whole play will be dull, which will in turn affect the message that is meant to be passed on in the play. The mood of the play is meant to be seen on the faces of the actors, thus when a scene is sad the actor’s face has to show it.

Costumes also complement a character, if a character in a play is meant to be depicted as a rich and outgoing person it will be absurd for such a person to dress in rags or cheap cloths. The sound effect is meant to compliment the situation or the mood of a scene, thus choosing the right sound effect is vital. The entire crew in the play did their best to ensure that the play was successful.

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The role of Prakriti in the causation of diabetic retinopathy. (2019, March 12). GradesFixer. Retrieved October 29, 2020, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-role-of-prakriti-in-the-causation-of-diabetic-retinopathy/
“The role of Prakriti in the causation of diabetic retinopathy.” GradesFixer, 12 Mar. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-role-of-prakriti-in-the-causation-of-diabetic-retinopathy/
The role of Prakriti in the causation of diabetic retinopathy. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-role-of-prakriti-in-the-causation-of-diabetic-retinopathy/> [Accessed 29 Oct. 2020].
The role of Prakriti in the causation of diabetic retinopathy [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Mar 12 [cited 2020 Oct 29]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-role-of-prakriti-in-the-causation-of-diabetic-retinopathy/
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