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In a research by Le Cornu (2009), she examined the role that professional experiences (practicum) can play in building resilience in pre-service teachers. In particular, it focused on a learning communities model of professional experience with its emphasis on relationships and its attention to the complex and dynamic interactions between individuals and their student teaching contexts.
She concluded that learning communities model of professional experience has the potential to contribute to developing resilience in pre-service teachers and it does this by providing opportunities for them to participate in a wide variety of collegial relationships, including reciprocal learning relationships with peers, which are underpinned by the notions of mutuality, empowerment and the development of courage.
Castro, Kelly, and Shih (2010) investigated the strategies of resilience exhibited by fifteen novice teachers hired in high-needs areas, such as in urban and rural contexts and in special education. The results of this study revealed that teachers used a variety of strategies, including problem-solving, help-seeking, managing difficult relationships, and seeking rejuvenation or renewal. By utilizing these strategies, novice teachers were assisted in building support and additional resources; however, the burden for success and securing additional resources fell on teachers themselves. Moreover, the researchers in this study revealed that resilient teachers demonstrated agency in the process of overcoming adversity.
In another study, Clarke (1995) examined the applicability of Donald Schön’s notion of reflective practice in teachers development in practicum settings for student teachers. The research was guided by three questions: What precipitates reflection?, What do student teachers reflect upon?, and What factors enhance or constrain reflection? Detailed framework of case studies on four science student teachers in a 13-week practicum were defined. Fifteen reflective themes were reported across the four cases, and it was possible to identify up to four precipitants for each theme. In all, 47 factors were reported that either enhanced or constrained reflection. He suggested four strategies for improving student teacher reflection and two refinements to Schön’s conception of reflective practice for use in practicum settings.
In a study by Kayapinar (2016), he proposed a new EFL reflective practitioner development model for an in-service program that was based on the principles of reflection, and also measured teachers” reflective and self-efficacy development. Focusing on promoting practitioners” reflective abilities, this model emphasizes building self-efficacy. The suggested model was assessed by collecting quantitative and qualitative data. The findings proposed that the model would be effective for educators to use as it facilitates and improves teachers” abilities to reflect and their overall self-efficacy.
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