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There are three laws that govern the general physics in the world that is all around us. These laws all came from Isaac Newton. The first law states that any object that is in motion will stay in motion unless there is an opposing force acting on it. Also it states that objects at rest will stay at rest unless there is a force acting on it. What that means is that if there is no friction or air resistance, a ball rolling on a flat surface will keep on rolling forever unless there is a force that stops the ball from rolling. That is true to a static object, so a water bottle on the table will remain there unless there is a force that pick it up, or moves it around.
The second law from Newton states that unbalanced forces causes object to accelerate. This means for an object to accelerate, there has to be a force acting on it for it accelerate, otherwise it would just stay at constant velocity. For example, if there was a place with no friction or drag, an object that is moving will continue moving at the same speed as stated in Newton’s first law unless an unbalance of force causes it to accelerate or deccelerate. Also, acceleration is proportional to force, meaning twice the force will equal double the acceleration of the original about, and four times the force will equal four times the acceleration of the original amount, and so on. However, mass is indirectly proportional to force, meaning twice the weight of an object moved with the same amount of force will only net half the original acceleration. In Newton’s second law, forces acting on an object vertically is independent from forces acting on it horizontally.
The final law to Newton’s law of Motion states that forces always comes in pairs. This means that there is always a force acting on an object. For example, a book that is resting on a table has a downward force due to gravity, but the table provides the counterbalancing force, causing the book to remain stationary. Another example would be an airplane. On an airplane, the plane is subject to gravitational forces just like all the other objects in the world, but because the lift from the wings is greater than the gravitational force, the plane is able to fly, Because the forces always act in pairs, the action-reaction forces are often referred to as contact forces.
The nature of vectors is exactly the same as how one uses it to solve for projectile motion. One would isolate the forces acting on the x axis and the y axis first then use sine, cosine, or tangent to find the force acting on the object from the angle.
Weight and mass are two separate things. Ones mass is always the same no matter where they go, because mass is the measure of inertia of an object, while weight is the gravitational force, usually measured in Newtons. A Newton is the amount of force required to accelerate one kilogram of mass to 1 m/s2. Weight is aso a vector quantity because it has magnitude and direction. Because weight is a vector and has a magnitude, apparent weight also applies, and it means the force felt when in contact with floor due to acceleration.
There is a second type of force called normal forces. Normal force is the force exerted by a surface that is perpendicular to the surface. Normal force comes from the atomic level where the surface that is perpendicular to the object “compresses” to the object causing the surface to give an opposing force that is usually either greater or smaller than the weight of the object.
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