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Human Growth and Development. This looks at how the body develops growing taller or developing muscles to allow the individual to carry out different movements. Finer motor skills- are actions that require the use of smaller motor skills in hands. Gross motor skills involve larger muscles of the body such as hand and legs. (Wyatt, L et al 2017)
What is cognitive development? This is the development of thinking and intellectual skills (Wyatt, L et al 2017). Which includes memory and understanding of numbers and shapes other examples include language development, creativity and problem solving. At the ages of 8 – 12 months infants begin to understand “object permanence”, which means that the infant comprehends that just because an object is out of sight, it will still exist. This is significant because it means that the infant must form a mental image of the object. (Bibace R. 2013)
What is social development? This is about learning skills to be able to be able to develop relationships with other people in order to develop relationships people need to learn specific values and skills such as empathy. (Wyatt, L et al 2017). The people and settings that are most involved with the child’s social development is. through their daily contact with parents, family members, school staff and friends as they learn about the social world and about the rules/values that support it. By being surrounded by these relationships, children also affect the ways that adults and their peers relate to them (unknown, 2012)
Types of socialisation Primary – This is where you socialise through the family and learn the norms and values Secondary – This happens when you start school and socialise by making new relationships What is emotional development? This is about how our feelings mature and we learn how to express ourselves and deal with our emotions. For example, children will often express their emotions by crying or getting angry displaying ‘temper tantrums’. As they get older they may learn to talk about their feelings. (Wyatt, L et al 2017) and express emotions in different ways by talking to friends and family.
0-2 years Infancy Physical development social development Infants grow rapidly during the first 6 months of their lives. Healthy new-borns double their weight by 4-5 months and triple it by the time they reach a year old (Smith, 2007 ). During infancy build up your gross motor skills and fine motor skills are vital l for later development. Gross motor skills involve using the large muscles of the body such as leg and arm muscles which and are essential for development when play with children. Contrastingly fine motor skills involve the ability to control and coordinate smaller movements such as hands and fingers. From Birth a baby can recognise a mother’s voice immediately and at 3 months begin to recognise people. From 12 months a baby’s social development usually improves drastically as they can begin to walk and crawl to people they recognise and respond to their own name. they enjoy engaging in activities and playing with other. As communication through speech is not always developed yet facial expression help to address the baby’s mood.
Emotional Development Cognitive Development Babies can feel interest, disgust, and happiness from birth, and can communicate these through facial expressions and posture. In addition, between ages 2 and 6 months, infants express other feelings such as anger, sadness, and fear. Between ages 5 and 6 months, babies begin to exhibit stranger anxiety. They do not like it when other people hold or play with them, and they will show this discomfort visibly (Oswalt, 2017)6 monthsDuring the first stage of a baby’s life cognitive development is very basic as it builds up through the stages of life Looks around at things nearby
Shows curiosity about things and tries to get things that are out of their reach Begins to pass things from one hand to another12 months Explores things in different ways like shaking, banging, throwing
Looks at something right when it’s named
Starts to use things correctly (such as drinks from a cup,)Miller, L. (2001)
3- 10 years oldChildhood Physical development Social development Social development is very important during childhood as a child starts to come to terms with their independence and desires. This results in less tantrums as children gain more language and physical skills. During school friendships are built and as the child grows old friendships are the made through common interests During this life stage children will begin to develop lots of different physical skills. Their hand eye coordination will get better and they will be able to do thing like throw and catch a ball as well as run and jump.Between the age of 3 and 4 they will begin to attempt things like the stairs on all fours. From the age of 5+ they will continue to perfect the skills that they have already begun to develop. They will run faster than before, and some may begin to learn to ride bikes.(Gracepointwellness.org, 2018)
Emotional development Cognitive development Early childhood developments ( 2-5 years) By 2 years, more than 50 words are clearly recognisable. Later, larger vocabulary starts but still ‘baby talk’ when the child reaches 3 years of age it can begin to can build a tower of 6-8 objects and is able to follows simple instructions. Middle Childhood developments (5-12 years) The child can now start to acquire logical thinking. Furthermore, the child can become involved in Co-operative play from 5 years old. later, in childhood at aged 11 an average child has a vocabulary of 11,000-12,000 words. (Green 2007)Piaget’s 4 stages of development 1- Sensorimotor – children start to explore the world through senses (0-2) 2- Preoperational – children think in a very egocentric way. They find it difficult to put themselves in other shoes ( 2-7 ) 3- Concrete operations – Think logically and understand maths at this point (7-12) 4- Formal operation – starts to think in an abstract and hypothetical way (12+)Emotionally children need reassurance from their careers. More independent and may play by themselves for longer periods. During this stage a child will begin to understand the roles of others and act them out through their play using dress up or their imagination.By the age of 4 a child will develop a positive self-esteem due to what they can do independently. They will develop this through praise and self-pride. (Billingham, M etal. 2016)It is also during this stage that a child will develop a sense of confidence or failure and inferiority based on their past experiences and/or the feedback given by their care giver.
Social developmentAt adolescence both males and females go through a phase called puberty which has many physical changes on the person. Puberty is when a child’s body begins to develop and change as they become an adult. The average age for a girl to begin this phase is 11 and for boys its 12. Puberty begins when the hormone gonadotropin is released from the part of the brain which is called the hypothalamus. This hormone stimulates the pituitary gland to release two hormones which are called Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. (NHS, 2018)At the stage of adolescence, you develop social skills such as: communication skills, relationships and organisation. As a teenager you may face challenges such as peer pressure and bullying. In adolescence the individual may go into employment making them more independent. They learn how to deal with certain situations socially expanding their communication skills
Cognitive Development At this age you will have a better understanding of others and will be able to feel other people’s emotions. Also, being able to feel empathy for others. Many will feel stress from exams and physical changes due to puberty. As this will be an emotional time for teenagers, many would start to feel self-consciousness, anger and other emotions. It could even lead to causing the individual to have mental disorders and can make them feel isolated.
Emotional changes: Teenagers may begin to show strong feelings and intense emotions at different times. Moods might seem unpredictable. These emotional ups and downs can lead to increased conflict. Your child’s brain is still learning how to control and express emotions in a grown-up way. Some people may feel more self-conscious, especially about physical appearance and changes.
Teenage self-esteem is often affected by appearance or by how teenagers think they look. As they develop, teens might compare their bodies with those of friends and peers (BC, 2014 ) During adolescence individuals develop skills to process more complex information and take a more independent approach to their own opinions and thoughts. They are more capable of discussing topics and exploring ideas more independently. Going into employment will allow them to develop cognitive skills. As a result of this, you develop your own interests and career paths.Types of cognitive growth through the years:Early – starts to question authority plus society standardsMiddle – may begin to think long-termLate – Begins to focus thinking on making career decisions and choices (Finkle A, 2015)
18-29 years old Early AdulthoodPhysical development During early adulthood, many changes occur physically. For example; pregnancy, experiences with sexuality and reaching their physical peak. Also, during this life stage, the menopause can happen earlier than some others. This is called pre-menopause; where the body begins to produce less hormones such as oestrogen, progesterone and FSH. Also, periods become less regular.Pregnancy: changes in the body; for example, weight gain, hormones changing, nausea, cravings, periods stop, breasts get larger and increase in sensitivity. Physical peak: Metabolism slows down slightly, tastes change from when you were a child,(NHS,2017)
Social development Within this stage they begin making friends through work, university or going out. Social change and some of the older friends you have, you may begin to lose contact with due to living in different towns, by them having children or working away. As mentioned before, alcohol can be drank by adults over the age of 18. This improves social lives as they can now go out to bars and go clubbing and this allows them to, again, make new friends.Being pregnant, can cause a decline of going out and socialising. Adjustments must be made to your life to cater for your children’s. Emotional Development
Emotional developments through early adulthood include: stress from work/family, building partnerships and having to go through the loss of a family member or loved one. Moving to a new house and having children is a happy time but can be stressful. Commitment to jobs can cause stress and tiredness. Getting fired or being made redundant can also cause upset. Early adults don’t always develop emotionally in a bad way, most things can be good. For example: bringing children into the world and getting married are very happy, important milestones bring joy and contentment. After the age of 18, by law you can drink alcohol. However, some choose to abuse this and become addicted. Alcohol is a depressant and can cause depression if addicted.
Cognitive Development While going through early adulthood, you begin to extend new skills due to more difficult and extreme work. These skills can include maths, problem solving, communication and teamwork. You need to be able to adapt to the job in question to be able to work well. Also throughout this stage you begin to establish new careers. Jobs such as dentists, doctors and nurses require a lot of time and effort and many skills like the ones listed above. At this point in life, you become responsible for yourself as you are not classed as a child anymore. You can have your own home, drive a car and go through with new jobs. Also, if you choose to have a family, looking after children can help you develop new skills.
30-60 years old Middle Adulthood Social development During the stage of middle adulthood, the aging process becomes more apparent. Around the age of 60, the eyes lose their ability to adjust to objects at varying distances, known as presbyopia. Most people between the ages of 40 and 60 will need some form of corrective lenses for vision deficits. Other health problems may start to occur, and the individual may need to have assistance and help provided to ensure they are free from harm. As health declines they also might want to sort out a health plan and think about moving out of their house into a care setting.
Physical development During middle Adulthood memory may start to decline as well as reaction time however, other skills have been developed from childhood, adolescences and early adulthood so knowledge is greater for example organisation skills would have improved throughout your life so far. For some Women emotions may change while going through the menopause they may begin to feel depressed due to hormonal imbalancePeople may have emotional changes that relate to the family as during these year’s children may leave home and the family structure will change this might leave feelings of loss and sadness. On the other hand, it could bring happiness and joy if grandkids are added the family.
Emotional development Cognitive development Throughout the ages of 30-60 you begin to have a strong network of friends and some adults will have a sexual relationship and develop permanent relationships, i.e. marriage, and parenthood. However, this is also the menopausal stage later at the average age of. This change can result in the decline of fertility and other symptoms including hot flushes and tiredness (NHS, 2018). Although there is still a possibility of having children with a British woman who gave birth at the age of 59 is believed to be the world’s oldest natural mother, without the aid of fertility treatment (Farmer , 2007 ). There are also other crucial points during this stage of development as many people focus on their career and may even prioritise it over starting a family 60+ years Later AdulthoodPhysical Development Social Development Many older adults live residentially in specially modified homes, this means that they may not see family and friends as often, resulting in less social action.However, within the care home for example, older individuals are surrounded by people they can relate to, allowing them to develop new friendships and relationships.Illnesses that can develop during the later stages of life can also influence someone’s social life, for example dementia.Physically, many old people are restricted making it hard for them to get out of the house.In later adulthood it’s when people come to terms with their lives and re-evaluate what they have done or accomplished. (Winslow J 2013)Elderly people commonly do fewer physical activities, however it is advised that they should do 150 minutes of moderate physical activities, and muscle strengthening activities. (NHS, 2018).
People in the stage of later adulthood lose the elasticity of their skin, their eyesight and hearing. During the stage of later adulthood, the bones and muscles become increasingly fragile, which means fine motor skills and gross motor skills are more difficult to do. Physical features also begin to change, such as hair becoming grey and wrinkles developing.Emotional Development In elder years, people might find it difficult to cope with physical changes this might make them feel depressed and saddened.In later years of life people might have to deal with the loss of people around them. This enhances feelings of isolation and loneliness.Also, mental and physical changes might mean that an individual requires support this can make one feel downgraded because they lack the independence they had in the early years of life, which is why empowerment is important.Many families are always aware of distancing that can happen in later adulthood which is why many family’s only grow stronger and emphasise family ties and relationships. (Geosities 2001)
In elderly people they may find recalling certain things or remembering things challenging, this is because memory and ability declines However, many people aged 65+ have an increased amount of free time, giving them the opportunity to take up their interests and partake in activities, for example; sewing, knitting or gardening. Some older people also find the time to engage in activities they enjoy. (Cliff Note 2016)Some elderly people may choose to have a career change, however for many this is not ideal as other aspects of their lives act as limitations for example their physical abilities.
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