Urbanization Factors Causing The Changes in The Characteristics of The Historic Heritage

About this sample

About this sample


Words: 6011 |

Pages: 13|

31 min read

Published: Mar 17, 2023

Words: 6011|Pages: 13|31 min read

Published: Mar 17, 2023

Table of contents

  1. What is Heritage Tourism?
  2. Historic city centres as a core part of European cultural heritage
  3. The Impact of Tourism on the City: State of the Art
  4. Introduction
  5. Background
  6. Conceptual framework
  7. Kumbakonam: urbanization and built heritage changes
  8. Risk and opportunity
  9. Growth and future development
  10. Conclusion

What is Heritage Tourism?

The National Trust defines heritage tourism as “traveling to experience the places, artifacts, and activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present. It includes cultural, historic and natural resources” (National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2008). More and more people are seeking unique travel experiences that combine history, education, entertainment and authenticity. A cultural heritage tourism survey conducted in 2009 revealed that 78% of all U.S. leisure travelers participate in cultural and/or heritage activities while traveling. These cultural and heritage travelers stay longer, spend more, and travel more often. They also tend to be older, better educated, more sophisticated, and often more affluent than other tourists. Overseas cultural heritage travelers visiting the United States tend to be more first-time travelers, stay longer in the United States, and visit more destinations than the average traveler.

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Historic city centres as a core part of European cultural heritage

The majority of these centres are protected under each country’s legislation. In addition to this, many of them have been included in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites. In these cases, the discussion uses the definition of “Groups of Buildings” as defined in the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972) and, specifically, urban buildings corresponding to “historic cities” (1987 Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention). The expression “historic urban landscape” was coined recently, a term that has become enshrined in institutional doctrine on heritage based on the Vienna Memorandum (2005) and the object of a specific UNESCO Recommendation (2011). According to this doctrine, the historic urban landscape incorporates not only material and immaterial components, but also the natural substratum moulded by each generation of settlers and even changing perceptions of this landscape. It involves taking a holistic approach based on the integration of morphological, socioeconomic and cultural factors. Cities are the most important component of cultural tourism in Europe. Visitor influx tends to be concentrated in urban centres, which overlap unevenly with historic centres. There is a substantial flow of tourists and day trippers inspired or motivated by cultural factors and interested in historic heritage and contemporary culture. This flow coexists with visitors with broader and more heterogeneous intentions. Whatever the purpose of their journey may be, tourists and day trippers make intensive use of historic centres, engaging in a series of cultural activities during their visits that overlap with the occupations of both local residents and residents from the rest of the urban sprawl. Tourism produces an impact on the city, especially in historic centres. This topic has formed the basis of a well-established line of research with important contributions being made since the 1980s. It also appears repeatedly in the work of major institutions contributing to learning in matters of heritage and urban development. Recently, the debate on this kind of impact has moved beyond the boundaries of academia and tourism stakeholders. In many European cities, a very negative view of the local effects of tourism has started to surface. Various social collectives have been marching against the different forms of city tourism, with issues ranging from the increase in tourist rental properties to cruise ships. Although these demonstrations do not usually attract large numbers of protesters, they are quite visible in the media. Local governments have added the negative effects of tourism to their agendas, and are starting to develop mitigation plans and programmes. Tourism is even starting to be seen as a problem for a large part of the local community in the most popular urban destinations. Two processes have favoured the appearance of this kind of opinion. Firstly, the rapid and spectacular growth in visitor numbers to leading European urban tourism destinations. Secondly, the boom in tourist rental accommodation, favoured by P2P platforms like Airbnb Although the effects of this expansion are still difficult to determine, it is raising all sorts of new issues that need to be addressed by urban tourism management. This study sets out to establish how certain tourism related processes affect how historic urban landscapes are safeguarded. In these spaces, tourist activity will be sustainable if it does not involve a deterioration in the set of physical, socioeconomic and symbolic characteristics as a whole. The study is based on and makes reference to the Parte Vieja (Old Quarter) of Donostia-San Sebastián, a historic neighbourhood in one of Spain’s traditionally most popular cities for tourism. Like many other places, the Parte Vieja is seeing rising levels of tourist pressure accompanied by a certain social resistance and the need to add the issue to the local political agenda. In addition to the introduction, this paper is divided into four sections. The first addresses the state of the art on the impact of tourism on cities. This is followed by the research methodology and the case study. The next section analyses the main factors of tourism pressure (results and discussion). The final section deals with the conclusions.

The Impact of Tourism on the City: State of the Art

Although some cities have been receiving visitors for a long time, urban tourism really started to emerge in the 1990s. During these years, tourism flows increased, tourism took on a high-profile role on the urban agenda and tourism research rediscovered the city. This was a period of major studies on urban tourism, which usually included specific chapters on the impact of tourism on the city. Generally speaking, the classic studies on tourism impact have been used as a reference. Among other issues, it was accepted that the sense and intensity of the impact depends on both visitor numbers and the characteristics of the destination. The impact may be physical, economic or social and it may be felt in a positive or negative sense. Sustainable planning in the destination involves maximising the positive effects of tourism and minimising the negative effects. This set of hypotheses was then applied to the study of the effects of tourism on the city. There was a prevailingly optimistic view, which emphasised the contribution of leisure and tourism to urban development, often as part of major renovation operations. Pearce incorporated the scale aspect into the study of urban tourism, a factor that should be considered when assessing impact. In Europe, most of the urban tourism flow was concentrated in cities and historic centres. Over the years, this gave rise to a more specific line of research focusing on these spaces. In addition to general discussions, more concrete issues relating to the impact of tourism were tackled. The term touristification was used to explain the process of change in urban forms and functions derived from the implementation and growth of tourism activity. This process had a particular effect on the “tourist-historic city”, the part of the historic city that visitors actually use. The existence of cities under pressure was highlighted, and the relations between tourism impact, carrying capacity and visitor management were analysed. Based on the destination life cycle theory, Russo puts forward the existence of a vicious circle of tourism development in large heritage cities, with reference to the case of Venice.

The growth of research into urban tourism led to a proliferation of study topics . In terms of tourism impact, these included holistic approaches focused on destination sites through to much more specific studies on one or two aspects of the impact. Estimates were produced on the effects of tourism on the urban economy based on the input-output model . Similar studies have been produced to assess the economic impact of major cultural tourism attractions and events such as European Capital of Culture . Studies on social impact include work on the way local communities perceive this kind of impact, and their attitudes to tourism development. Surveys of the resident population are used to probe the connection between these factors and variables such as personal and collective economic dependence on the tourism activity, the proximity of the home address to the places with high visitor numbers and various socio-economic factors. The sustainability of the destination also implies obtaining a satisfactory tourist experience, so the effects of high visitor numbers on that experience is also analysed. High visitor numbers may also lead to a perception of overcrowding, but visitors may also see this as being a typical feature of tourism sites [28]. Generally speaking, there is a predominance of quantitative studies. However, these contain interesting discussions arising from analysis of the discourse of different stakeholders, which enables alliances, conflicts and contradictions to be identified according to areas of interest and reference scales. This entire set of themed discussions is being enriched with the results extracted from studies undertaken in emerging countries with fledgling tourism industries. Among other issues, work is being done on the attitudes of residents to tourism development factors that influence the perception of overcrowding and its impact on the tourist experience, and changes in the commercial landscape derived from the growth in tourism .

To a great extent, this scientific research has fed into approaches to the impact on tourism of major institutions contributing to doctrine on the subject of urban heritage, namely the World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS, OWHC and others. It is even a topic of discussion at the World Tourism Organisation, UN-Habitat and the European Commission. Compared to sector approaches, the focus is more holistic, centred on the logic of the particular site in question. The historic city is discussed on the basis of the historic urban landscape approach, paying particular attention to World Heritage Sites, where tourism is a recurring theme. The negative effects on the conservation of cities and historic centres is worrying, but the positive impact of tourism as a factor in urban regeneration is also accepted, in both physical and socio-economic terms. This explains the emphasis on sustainable site planning and management, incorporating the local community as a producing agent of both the space and its heritage value and, at the same time, as the main receiver of the impact of tourism. Together with tourism studies and doctrinal discussions on urban heritage, the last fifteen years have seen the emergence of a strong line of work on tourism gentrification. Although there are some previous studies that explore the relationships between gentrification and tourism, the first major reference to tourism gentrification can be found in Gotham’s article on the Vieux Carré (French Quarter) in New Orleans. Subsequent discussions have delved into aspects like the dynamics of the property market associated with the growth in urban tourism; the role of local authorities, public urban regeneration initiatives and their connection with property promotion; residential displacement, which involves both emptying an area and replacing one kind of settler for another with more spending power; commercial gentrification, with the appearance of a new globally oriented commercial landscape; plus discourses on the “right to the city”. These processes are all suitable for analysis over very long periods of time, highlighting similarities and differences.


A recent United Nations report (2017) said that by the year 2050, 69% of the population would be concentrated in urban areas. Development, growth, and urbanization are inevitable to provide jobs for a burgeoning population, but new guidelines for planning, development, and implementation need to be created that include factors like cultural and architectural heritage. The recent project on Urban Conservation Planning in Southeast Asia (2017) of the Getty Conservation Institute, is a good example of progressive thinking in urban planning. The report emphasized the difficulties in the conservation of the urban cultural heritage that countries like India, China, and other Southeast Asia region confront under current urbanization models. Excessive population growth, economic development and lack of institutional or legal frameworks in several cases set the stage for the destruction of the historic urban fabric. “Historic heritage are places of significance to people on account of historical, physical (ie, technological, archaeological, architectural) and cultural values. Historic heritage is often referred to as cultural and historic heritage or simply ׳historic places׳.” (2011)

Historic towns often exhibit a rich mixture of social, cultural, architectural and historical heritage values (Cohen, 1999, Cullen, 1961). However, streetscapes, urban fabrics and buildings are developing and changing to suit the demands of stakeholders while the role of urbanization in preserving the heritage characteristics of the environment is ignored. It is the responsibility of stakeholders to work to conserve the distinctive character and quality of the historic environment for future generations. Development of towns and cities is not certainly destructive, but haphazard growth, the ungovernable intrusion of modernization, poor planning and inadequate awareness of heritage values combine to produce a host of problems that threaten the tangible and intangible heritage (Persson, 2004).

In developing countries like India, urbanization is taking place at an unprecedented rate (Nandi and Gamkhar, 2013). Urbanization threatens many heritage towns possessed of unique aesthetic, architectural, cultural and historical significance. The number of metropolises in India with a million or more people has increased from only 18 in 2001–53 in 2011 and historical-heritage temple towns are especially undergoing a rapid transition due to urbanization without regard for changes in their built heritage. Thus, this paper aims to identify the urbanization factors causing the changes in the characteristics of built-heritage in the historic-heritage temple town of Kumbakonam in Tamilnadu, India.

This paper is divided into five sections. Following the introduction, Background, Conceptual framework explain the background of the study and provide the conceptual framework for urbanization and changes in built-heritage. Section 4 describes the study area and the variables selected for the empirical study. In that section, we discuss the empirical model, the dependent and predictor variables used in the study. Then, the following Section 5 describes the findings and discussion and Section 6 presents the conclusions.


UNESCO׳s recommendations on planning for the Historic Urban Landscape emphasize that the urban heritage is a social, cultural, and economic asset (UNESCO, 2011). The identification, conservation, and management of historic areas should be included in a broad approach in urban planning that focuses on physical characteristics as well as sociocultural and economic values. While most rapid urbanization in the Asian context results in a decline in the built heritage of the historic environment, the conservation of heritage sites is alive and well in some tourism and associated commercial markets (Amin, 2018). Most of the Asian countries confront the pressure of urbanization to protect the identity and continuity of their rich heritage. During the twentieth century, the influx of modernism and large-scale reconstruction spurred many cities to elicit change by the rejection of traditional architecture, building techniques, and materials in favor of more modern methods (Susan, 2011). Commercial establishments moving into the settlement core pushed for the new architectural interventions expecting old historical buildings to sacrifice their heritage values (Tweed and Sutherland, 2007). Replacement of old buildings with new construction extinguished the social and cultural essence of the city and eliminated the people׳s sense of place and identity. Beatriz and Francisco (2018) argued that urban planning in historical heritage cities should make allowances for the sociocultural, socioeconomic and historical context of the buildings.

The 2011 census revealed that from 1991 to 2011, the urban population of India increased from 100 million to 200 million as a result of rampant urbanization. In India, each townscape has its own unique diverse qualities, and transitions in land-use. An increasing urban population with different needs and aspirations and uncontrolled development are drastically transforming the character of historic areas. This transition can destroy the individuality of the historic urban fabric, making all towns seem similar. Some Indian cities have initiated conservation strategies in their master plans for development, but most efforts to protect the built heritage and its characteristic historic areas are too weak and limited (PEARL, 2015). From the effects of urbanization, the discontinued heritage flavor of the urban fabric in the historic centers has to revive. Thus, we must identify the factors impeding the continuity of heritage values with respect to the preservation of the heritage buildings. Our study of Kumbakonam as an example of urbanization strategies that encompass historical as well as modern factors proposes a conceptual framework to analyze the impact of urbanization on the built heritage and provide empirical guidelines for prohibiting needless changes in heritage buildings in the historic parts of the town.

Conceptual framework

Patrick Geddes, a renowned city planner of the 19th century, began the analytical appraisal method of historical towns, culminating in his urging against the demolition of heritage buildings in the historic town of Madurai, India (Karthik, 2017). Building on the ideas of Geddes, Giovannoni advocated a ‘harmless’ form of development in which a contemporary style was adapted to the built heritage of a historical town (Loes et al., 2013). Conservation of the architectural, aesthetic, historical and cultural significance of the built heritage was made the cornerstone of urban planning for present and future generations (Feilden, 2003, Oppong et al., 2018). The unique character of a city depends in large part on preserving the existing built heritage and limiting new interventions in architecture and public spaces (Warnaby, 2009, Kropf, 1996). 1999 stated that the historic towns and their buildings should be preserved as testimonials of the past. Rodwell (2007) advocated thorough documentation of the heritage attributes of the houses in a historic town as a way to enumerate these features and monitor changes due to modernization. Most historical-heritage towns are under pressure for urbanization and development with the concomitant hazards of discontinuity in architectural style and loss of the harmonious relationship between the old and new built environments (Shahrul et al., 2013). Orbasli (2008) argued that urbanization threatens the physical fabric and sociocultural aspects of heritage towns while Beatriz and Francisco (2018) widened historic cities research through spotlighting sociocultural, economic, historical and physical factors.

Kumbakonam: urbanization and built heritage changes

Kumbakonam, the temple town famed for its historic architecture and cultural heritage, was for centuries under the rule of its great legendary kings. They left their stamp on the town in the form of grand palaces and residences, temples and religious buildings. Up until the British colonial period, Kumbakonam had maintained the unique style and individual flavor of its urban fabric. Many temples in the town exhibit the architectural styles of the period during which the kings ruled the town; the residential buildings indicate the vernacular architecture of the region; the commercial buildings express the colonial style. Even after independence in 1947, the town was able to maintain a good balance between development and preserving its heritage character.

Over the past few decades, however, Kumbakonam has been beset by a growing pressure of urbanization whose thirst for development has little concern for the historical attributes of the built heritage. Particularly, in the historic center of town, rampant growth and modernization are rapidly replacing the historical heritage characteristics with amorphous, contemporary, and global designs. The very physical settings of the town, especially the buildings, are being irrevocably altered and with their passing, the overall fabric and flavor of the place will soon only be a memory preserved in a few remaining structures and photographs. Kumbakonam has a presence, an almost physical body that gives joy to its people, provides a focus for their religious life and a backdrop for their everyday activities. There is an intangible value in the visual aspects of a place, the way it inhabits the landscape, the appearance of its buildings against the skyline predominating the temple gopurams, the very materials from which they are constructed—the brickworks, stone copings, decorative ironwork, wooden railings, roofing tiles, etc. The heights of the original buildings were proportioned for the town skylines and the temple towers. (Ground floor, Single storied , Multi-Storied ), architectural elements (ornamental gates, arched windows, decorated parapets, pilasters, cornices, tiled roofs, lean-to-roofs), expose the heritage characteristics. On the other hand, urbanization process with the development pressure, increase the occupancy rate and land value. Commercial establishment speeds overcome the residential settings which induce to change the building use. In this process, the buildings keep modified and intervening in global trends results in the loss of the built heritage settings.

The town was familiar for copper vessel and utensil businesses passed on from generations to generations. shows the traditional copper vessels shop in the Potramarai North street. Only a few shops exist in the traditional style, and others are modified to the current trend. Further, the land values have increased in the recent decades. The building owners kept partitioning their buildings and rented them for commercial purposes. The streetscapes and skylines are mostly affected by these changes. Concerning the town׳s significant built heritage, the factors which cause the changes have to be identified, and proper measures to balance the urbanization and the historical heritage settings should be undertaken. Careless disregard of the potential adverse effects of new interventions due to urbanization, these factors threaten the existing urban fabric. The targets of urbanization and changes in built heritage are represented. In the following sections, we establish an empirical model for urbanization by defining those variables with the most significant potential for reshaping the building heritage of Kumbakonam.

Risk and opportunity

Historic urban areas are becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural as well as man-made hazards such as earthquakes, floods, fires, cyclones and vandalism. In the absence of any comprehensive legal framework for protection, historic urban areas are vulnerable not only to impending disasters but also during emergency and post disaster recovery phases. The major underlying causes for their increasing vulnerability are population growth, urbanization and poverty, especially in developing countries. However these should not be seen merely as a passive victim of disaster. In the face of disasters, traditional communities in historic cities often develop a vocabulary of resilient features in the urban environment that intentionally or unintentionally contribute towards prevention and mitigation, emergency response and recovery. The article will describe these systems in detail through various examples. The article will further elaborate on the key challenges and priorities for disaster risk reduction of historic urban areas. The main goal is to reduce risks to the population and physical fabric in historic urban areas through use of sustainable conservation and development practices and raising awareness among all stakeholders including public agencies, civic society organizations, private sector as well as local communities. The article will further outline the agenda for action for risk reduction and highlight some of the recent national and international initiatives undertaken so far.

Over the past several years, there have been frequent reports of large-scale disasters across the globe. In addition to causing enormous loss of life and property, these disasters have caused widespread damage to the cultural heritage of these towns and cities. Recent disasters such as Hurricane Sandy, which swept across the north-eastern part of the United States in 2012, the Great East Japan Earthquake and Christchurch Earthquake in 2011, are just some examples of the extreme vulnerability of cultural heritage and the lack of resources and planning in place to protect it. It is essential to take proactive measures to reduce risks to cultural heritage from these catastrophic events through adequate mitigation and preparedness. Cultural heritage, in both its tangible and intangible manifestations, is essential for a city’s cultural identity. Given the exponential rate of urbanisation, and the inherentrisks that are faced by dense urban areas, there is a need for a specialised approach to risk management of cultural heritage in urban areas. In light of these challenges, developing a disaster risk management strategy for cultural heritage is of paramount importance within the overall planning and management frameworks. Comprehensive disaster risk management plans need to be formulated based on the specific characteristics of cultural heritage and nature of hazards within a regional context. These plans should take into account the principles of risk management, response to historic, aesthetic and other values of cultural heritage, and, at the same time, address greater urban development challenges. Such planning requires skilled professionals, administrators and policy makers who are able to take into consideration various aspects for developing risk management plans in regards to cultural heritage.

RitsDMUCH intends to act as the hub for institutions concerned with organising such courses and also as a resource bank for experts as well as teaching material. It is willing to contribute as a hub until similar organisations are well established and able to function independently. The International Training Course on Disaster Risk Management of Cultural Heritage was introduced at RitsDMUCH, Kyoto in the year 2006, as part of the UNESCO Chair Programme. A Special Thematic Session on Risk Management for Cultural Heritage had been organised during the World Conference on Disaster Reduction (UN-WCDR) in January 2005 in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan. One of the outcomes of the conference was highlighting the urgent need for the academic community to develop rigorous scientific research, education and training programmes incorporating cultural heritage in both its tangible and intangible manifestations, into the subject areas of risk management and disaster recovery. RitsDMUCH had already been preparing for an International Training Course; and the recommendations of the conference helped steer the planning of such courses. The course, now in its eighth consecutive year has significantly evolved and has become popular among professionals, researchers and decision makers from the cultural heritage as well as disaster management sides. The course includes field‐based learning, class lectures and presentations. Additionally, academic support is provided by the resource persons to the course participants for developing disaster risk management plans for cultural heritage properties in their respective countries. This course has been organised in cooperation with the World Heritage Centre and the Division of Cultural Heritage at UNESCO, ICCROM, ICOMOS, and Agency for Cultural Affairs as well as other relevant institutions of the government of Japan. However due the limited resources, only 8‐10 applicants are trained annually through this course. Considering the increasing need for capacity building in this area, it is important that the vast body of experience from this course available in the forms of its academic content, pedagogy as well organisation and methodology is communicated to a global audience. It is essential that similar courses are organised by institutions/organisations in other regions of the world. Therefore RitsDMUCH decided to develop the Training Guide for Disaster Risk Management of Cultural Heritage in Urban Environment with the support of UNESCO.

The heritage assets are permanently exposed to natural and anthropogenic hazards. The risk analysis which are the among the most important tools needed for decision making in process of cultural heritage asset management and maintenance is quantitative and qualitative. The qualitative part is in case of heritage assets more demanding than quantitative. However, the basic questions are related to prediction of type of harmful event, likeliness of its appearance and prediction of its consequences. In this process is important to identify the potential risks for heritage asset under observation and capacity of asset to resist the potential harmful impacts. The staring point of activities in process of sustainable protection of cultural heritage asset is collecting of as much as possible complete set of data where the use of contemporary and emerging ICT tools is unavoidable. In the present paper the contributions of recently completed FP7 projects Climate for Culture and EU CHIC as well as ongoing H2020 project INCEPTION will be presented and highlighted in context of risks and sustainable protection of cultural heritage assets. Both the problem of objects and buildings will be addressed and protocols for data collecting developed in above named FP7 projects will be described. Special attention will be paid to contribution of 3D digital documentation of assets as a part of data collecting protocols.

Growth and future development

In the present era, urban fabric is continuously unplanned and zigzag development going on due to insensitive and encroachments approaches. Though India is on the main stream to urban conservation with several initiatives taken at the governments at national and local level, but we still have a long way to go. The cultural diversity of Udaipur cities entwined with complex historic layers and unique urban geomorphology present a challenging task for conservationists, urban planners, environmentalists, anthropologists, sociologists, engineers and other associated professionals at large. The paper is focus on potential and limitation of Udaipur city in the future. Because earlier the city is based on cultural identities and historical events. But nowadays, urban heritage degradation is going on with unplanned growth. The research methodology is based on primary and secondary data and information’s which is connected to urban factors that determine the identity, authenticity and uniqueness of the croatian territory, Urban and spatial planning analysis and evaluation methods of cultural heritage, Criteria for the enhancement of cultural heritage, spatial-urban, spatial-landscape, and models for planning cultural heritage. Meanwhile the rural exodus, combined with population growth, has stretched city of the developing world to the bush, inviting burgeoning poverty, untenable pollution and erratic construction of roads and buildings. Udaipur face innumerable of pressures that are cutting into their most intimate identity and history. By conserving and upgrading its physical legacy, the city also wants to innovate and adapt to the changing global environment. The goal is to create an urban ecosystem that enables its residents, institutions and businesses to thrive, while strengthening its attraction.

The preservation of identity in the cities has a great relationship with the correct planning policies that relate to heritage buildings and traditional architecture, where the traditional cities contain organic fabric with narrow, twisted, or broken roads with incomplete visual axes. The streets in the traditional cities are shaded and sometimes even roofed, as in Jerusalem, Damascus, Aleppo, Delhi etc. The World Heritage Convention recognizes that heritage can be defined as “monuments, group of buildings, and sites.” There is a wide range of styles including urban cities, archeological sites, industrial heritage, cultural landscapes, and heritage roads. Udaipur is located in the north western part of India in the state of Rajasthan. With a total population of 3,068,420, Udaipur stands sixth among Rajasthan’s 31 districts. Udaipur is linked to major cities like New Delhi, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, etc. through road, rail, and air. It also has the distinction of being the only city in the country to have both the East-West Corridor and the North-South Corridor of the Golden Quadrilateral Highway Project passing through it. Udaipur city is known for its history of warriors, a rich cultural heritage and is a famous tourist attraction. The lakes of Pichola, Fateh Sagar, Udai Sagar and Swaroop Sagar around the city are considered to be some of the most beautiful lakes in Rajasthan. Udaipur has witnessed multifold development in the last two decades. There are several large and small-scale industries in Udaipur, mainly in manufacturing of synthetic yarn, tyre tube, cement, marble tiles and marble slabs, gases, synthetic threads, oil refinery etc. The city is also a host to several state and regional public offices. The city, however, has been facing major issues which hinder its holistic development. For instance, Udaipur like most other Indian cities is growing rapidly and expanding non-orderly. The absence of broad gauge connectivity to the city has been affecting both industrial as well as commercial growth. The infrastructure facilities like sewerage, drainage and solid waste

Udaipur is divided in a walled city consisting roughly of a walled historic center called the “walled city” and in a newer peripheral city (Figure 2). The walled city houses the majority of heritage structures and is also the main tourist attraction hotspot (with over 900,000 tourists per year, 80% of them Indian and 20% International). Rajasthan is predominantly a rural state with less than 25% of its population living in urban areas. However, the rate of urbanization in the last decades has increased considerably and has witnessed a 29% growth. Udaipur is the sixth largest city in Rajasthan and has witnessed considerable population growth in the last 4 decades facilitated by a growing economy which again to a large extent has been generated by an increasing number of tourists. As per census 2011, the total urban population in Udaipur district increased by 26.8% from 608,426 persons as compared to 479,831 in 2001. Udaipur city is home to both the Municipal Corporation and the headquarters of the Udaipur district administration. The urban institutional set-up in Udaipur is fragmented into various departments responsible for the provision, operation and maintenance of urban services. The Udaipur Municipal Council (UMC) is the main administrative body. Urban Improvement Trust (UIT) is responsible for overall development of Udaipur town. It is responsible for implementation of development plans and infrastructure in the notified UIT areas, which technically include both, rural as well as urban areas. In addition, there are a number of Line Departments mainly under the Rajasthan authority providing support services within their respective areas of responsibility (such as Town Planning, Public Health and Engineering Department, Public Works Department, Rajasthan Housing Board, RSRTC, Forest Department, Tourism Department). These departments will act closely together with UMC on projects related in delivery of urban service.

The city of Udaipur was established around 425 years ago, which historically incredible. The biggest important thing of this city lake system and canal system, it is role model for water conservation and water security system. Around 1582, the Maharanas of the erstwhile state of Mewar started searching out Lake Pichola to make it suitable as an irrigation and drinking source for the general population. In the 1890, Maharana Fateh Singh inaugurated a project, which is the world's first man-made microsystem of river diversion, linkage and watershed management, the result of which constitutes the current system of eight interconnected and gradually descending lakes system. Recently, the Government of India has been started smart cities project, which is inclusive and integrated development of urban spaces in India. The 100 Smart Cities scheme presents itself asan interesting platform for taking cooperation with Indian states and cities forward in a mutually beneficial manner. The present report focusses on such opportunities in Udaipur, which is selected among the first 20 cities in the 100 Smart Cities scheme. The smart city plan for Udaipur is intended around creating a world class heritage city with central focus on boosting tourism through the development of lakes and services prompting tourism within the city. A citizen driven charter has ensured that the focus for development of tourism is also founded on improving solid waste management and transportation within the city (including the walled city of Udaipur). The city administration has begun the process for identifying solutions through pilot projects with the formation of Special Purpose Vehicle within the city. Recently one of famous collaboration with Danish company and it is a clear opportunity for Danish Companies to evaluate business prospects within India. The Danish Embassy along with Innovation Centre Denmark stands ready to assist companies in showcasing solutions and exploring the potential creation of pilot projects for mapping opportunities in Udaipur. In the Udaipur city there are many problem such as Power Supply, Water Supply and Sanitation, Sewage Systems, Road, Parking and Traffic, Solid Waste Management, Street lighting, Heritage / Tourist amenities, Safety and Security, IT Connectivity Lake and school infrastructure. The reason being of last couple of decades, population growth rate is decaling, but aggregate population is increasing, when we see 1971 census that time we find around 3.73 percentage growth rate but now 2011 census growth rate is decreasing. But the increasing in population in Udaipur is a matter of concern the main reasons is the migration from rural to urban areas due to lack of infrastructure in regional case

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If these practices are described properly and accurately, one might understand better how tourism characterizes daily lives of social groups living in host environments and how it offers a distinctive sense of what happens to people, thus comprehending societies and cultures in tourism contexts”. This is the last sentence of the introduction to this volume. Linking this statement to the heading of the Conclusion acknowledges that, being one of the most important economic realities in the world and a product of “the industrial structures of the Western world” (Lanquar, 1991, p. 7), tourism is a result of the practices carried out by millions of people moving all over the world spending their incomes to enjoy themselves.

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