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Ecology is a scientific study of interaction between organisms and their physical environment. It includes both biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors are all of the living organisms within an ecosystem such as plants, animal and any other living things. Abiotic factors are all of the non-living things in an ecosystem. There are three basic categories of abiotic factors: climatic, edaphic and social. Climatic factors include humidity and sunlight. Edaphic refers to soil conditions, include geography of the land. Social factors include water resources in the area and how the land is being used. Examples of social abiotic factors are damn building and farming. Five common abiotic factors are atmosphere, chemical elements sunlight/temperature, wind and water.
Ecology shows the extent of the damage we cause to the environment and provides predictive models on how bad the damage can be. The study of ecology is all about connections. It helps us to understand how these things relate, and using the principles of ecology, we can learn to anticipate, reduce, offset and prevent negative impacts we might have on the world around us, as well as to maximize the positive efforts we can take. It brings together learnings from the various fields of biology, geology, plant science, forestry, mycology, animal biology, conservation biology, wetlands science, atmospheric science, and all the other natural sciences, and seeks to put those things to use together.
There are many other disciplines working into Ecology. Here are those which are intimately related to this science Ecology needs Physics because all biotic processes are related with energy transfer, from producers, which take advantage of light energy for producing complex organic compounds, to bacteria, which obtain chemical energy by the disintegration of the molecular structures of other organisms. It also relates to Geology because biomes depend on the geological structure of the environment. Geography is a very important discipline in ecology because of the specific distribution of living beings on Earth. Chemistry also important disipline because all the metabolic and physiological processes of biosystems depend on chemical reactions.
Mathematics is crucial for Ecology, for example for the calculus, statistics, projections and extrapolations when Ecologists deal with specific information about the number and distribution of species, the evaluation of biomass, extension of communities and biodiversity, population growth, and to quantify the environmental pressures at a given biome.
Climatology and Meteorology Help Ecologists to understand how the variation on climatic conditions at a given region affects the regional or global biodiversity. It helps Ecologists to know how the regional or global climate increases or reduces the probabilities of survival of individuals, populations and communities in any region under study and how the distribution of species is related to the regional climate.
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