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Alcohol and violent behavior are essentially related. Domestic violence, sexual assaults, homicides, anti-social behavior and property crimes are all too common with alcohol. Naturalistic Observation is a research technique usually used by psychologists and other social scientists. This method includes observing subjects in their natural setting. Naturalistic Observation is a good method to study the relationship between alcohol and violence. I would use this method over all the other research methods out there because you are observing real people who are under the influence of alcohol without forcing or creating a behavior. You are observing a natural event happening because you are not interacting with these people. These observations can be done in public and local places such as bars, casinos and nightclubs.
There are many strengths and weaknesses when using natural observation. One strength is naturalistic observations do not always require informed consent. Another strength is you are observing people’s natural behaviors while being unaware that they are being observed. Also, these observations can be done in public and not in a lab. One of the main weaknesses of natural observation is that if the observer is detected, he or she may change the behaviors of the person being observed. Other weaknesses are that more than one observer is needed, and the observer may be biased on what he or she is seeing. There are also some ethical considerations that must be considered while undertaking this study. One ethical consideration is respect the rights of others. You are there to just observe them and nothing else. You also need to protect them from harm if necessary. For example, if the person you are observing becomes very violent and a danger to himself or the public, you must act and help in anyway you can, like calling the police.
Positive reinforcement is a consequence that creates a pleasant state, making behavior more likely to occur. An example of positive reinforcement is when a mother gives his child dessert for finishing all his dinner. Negative reinforcement is a consequence that takes away an unpleasant state, making behavior more likely to occur. An example of negative reinforcement is “Billy hates when his mom nags him to do the dishes. He starts to do the dishes immediately after finishing a meal to avoid his mother’s nagging” (Prince, 2013). There are two types or reinforcers which are primary reinforcers and secondary reinforcers. Primary reinforcer is a reward that provides basic needs such as food, water and air. Secondary reinforcer, also known as conditioned reinforcer is a reward that can be exchanged for ones meeting basic needs such as money. One situation in which I have been positively reinforced is when I am at work and guest ask me if they can get on my ride one time for free, I work at theme park. I let the guest ride for free and they give me a tip, which is a secondary reinforcer. An ethical consideration of this positive reinforcement is costing the company money. A situation in which I have been negatively reinforced is when my dog wakes me up early in the morning by barking, so I get up and give him a treat, so he can be silent, this is a primary reinforcer. An ethical consideration of my negative reinforcement is my dog can become unhealthy with all the treats, and he may also expect a treat every morning. There is also shaping in my negative reinforcement because when my dog hears me get up he starts barking less. Then when he sees me grabbing the treat he starts crying. Finally, when I give him the treat he is completely silent.
Psychology is a subject that is extremely confusing to me. There are some theories however that helped me understand some parts of the roots of psychology. First, neuroscience, which is also referred as biological psychology. Neuroscience is the study of the brain and nervous system. Neuroscience helped me comprehend how the brain processes through emotion and behavior on many levels. Next, evolutionary psychology helped me understand psychology by explaining the valuable mental and psychological traits such as memory, perception, or language. Evolutionary psychology is focused on how evolution has shaped the mind and behavior. Also, cognitive helped me what is happening within our minds that links stimulus and response. Cognitive is all types of thinking, including knowing, remembering, reasoning, deciding, and communicating. Making a judgment, the ability to solve problems, and our ability to reason all have to do with cognitive. The last theory that helped me understand the roots in psychology is humanistic perspective. Humanistic perspective is a branch of psychology that emphasized growth, potential, and self-actualization. Family therapy is another example of the humanistic perspective as well as a person to focusing on their strengths rather than their faults. Although I still have a difficult time understanding psychology, all these perspectives have helped be understand some parts of psychology.
Psychological disorder is abnormal behavior patterns characterized by disturbances in behavior, thinking, perceptions, or emotions that are associated with significant personal distress or impaired functioning. If I was a counselor working with your first client who suffers with a severe anxiety disorder I would help in many ways. First anxiety disorder are mental disorders categorized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear. I would identify the disorder by many symptoms such as pounding heart or accelerated heart rate, sweating, shaking and shortness of breath along with many other symptoms. The first treatment I would give my client would be behavior therapy which is a learning theory to change behavior. If behavior therapy does not work, I would suggest that my client took anti-anxiety medication. This medication helps reduce symptoms of agitation and nervousness. Although these medications are fast-acting and effective, there are many down sides. There is a risk that people who take this medication will develop tolerance and dependency to this drug.
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