How does Odysseus convince his wife, Penelope, he is Odysseus in The Odyssey?

Updated 28 August, 2023
In "The Odyssey," Odysseus convinces Penelope he is truly himself by recounting a secret detail about their bed. This detail, known only to Odysseus and Penelope, involves the construction of their bed around an olive tree. His intimate knowledge of this secret reassures Penelope of his identity.
Detailed answer:

In Homer's epic poem "The Odyssey," Odysseus' reunion with Penelope after his long and arduous journey is a central moment of the narrative. To convince Penelope that he is indeed her husband, Odysseus employs a private detail that only the two of them share.

In Book 23 of "The Odyssey," Penelope tests Odysseus' authenticity by instructing her maids to move their marriage bed out of the chamber. However, Odysseus vehemently protests, revealing an intimate secret that only the real Odysseus would know. He describes how the bed cannot be moved since he constructed it himself around a living olive tree:

"…I know well what sign I gave you
once when we were alone, a secret only you
and I would know. I asked you once about
the bed I built for us. You answered,
it would never budge a bit, a bed
rooted firm as long as our lives held out.
And I say now no other man on earth
could tell that secret—only you, and I,
and a single serving woman, the old one
who nursed me as an infant."

This revelation deeply moves Penelope, confirming Odysseus' identity. The knowledge of this private detail, combined with Odysseus' intricate storytelling and recognition of the bow test, assures Penelope of his true return.

This episode serves as a poignant depiction of the enduring bond between Odysseus and Penelope. The bed symbolizes their marriage, fidelity, and shared history, making it a fitting sign of Odysseus' genuine identity. The use of this secret detail showcases Odysseus' cunning, emotional intelligence, and ability to navigate complex challenges.

In conclusion, Odysseus convinces Penelope that he is truly himself by revealing a secret detail about their marriage bed, which only the two of them know. This detail underscores their intimate connection and serves as a poignant demonstration of Odysseus' identity, marking a pivotal moment of reunion in "The Odyssey."


  1. 1. Homer. (1998). The Odyssey (R. Fagles, Trans.). Penguin Classics.
    2. Dougherty, C. (2001). Love and its Lack in Homer's Odyssey. The Classical World, 94(2), 137-150. doi:10.2307/4352357
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