The feature that made Ancient Rome a republic was the fact that it was governed by elected officials instead of a monarch. This was a significant departure from the system of government that had existed in Rome prior to the establishment of the republic. The Roman monarchy, which had lasted for over two centuries, was overthrown in 509 BCE. The overthrow was led by Lucius Junius Brutus, who was later elected as one of the first consuls of the new Roman Republic.
In a republic, the citizens have a say in the government through their elected representatives. In Ancient Rome, the citizens were divided into two classes: patricians and plebeians. The patricians were the wealthy landowners who held most of the political power. The plebeians were the common people, including farmers, artisans, and merchants, who had little political power. However, over time, the plebeians gained more rights and eventually became eligible to hold political office.
The Roman Republic had a complex system of government that included a Senate, magistrates, and popular assemblies. The Senate was made up of around 300 patricians who served for life and acted as advisers to the consuls. The magistrates were elected officials who held various positions of power, such as the praetors who acted as judges and the aediles who were responsible for public works and festivals. The popular assemblies were made up of plebeians who elected officials and voted on laws.
The Roman Republic lasted for centuries, during which time it expanded its territory and became one of the most powerful states in the ancient world. However, the system was not without its flaws. The patricians held most of the power, and the plebeians were often marginalized. There were also frequent conflicts between the patricians and the plebeians, which led to social and political unrest. These conflicts eventually led to the downfall of the Roman Republic and the establishment of the Roman Empire in 27 BCE.
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