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A Research Paper on STDs and Its Types

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People in today’s society are very quick to do things, without realizing all the different kinds of consequences their actions bring. Whether it’s buying a car, having a drink, or having an entire meal from McDonald’s. Along with that, people are also very quick to have unprotected, sexual relations with others without realizing the negative effects the pleasures bring. Besides the fact that one could get pregnant, different kinds of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can come about. In this paper, the researcher will discuss three different kinds of diseases that can be sexually transmitted, which include bacterial disease, viral disease, and fungal disease. The research will focus on the structure of each type of sexually transmitted disease, how they reproduce, and how each life cycle is. The first page will cover Chlamydia, a bacterial STD. The second page will talk about a viral infection; HIV which leads to AIDS. Finally, the last disease covered will be the Vaginal Yeast Infection, which is an example of a fungal disease. Throughout the paper, each example of an STD will go into detail regarding different treatments for each disease, if applicable, symptoms, and how they correlate with the structure, and life cycle of the bacteria, virus, and fungus. It is important to know and understand which type of disease because there can be different ways to treat it, depending on how serious they might be. This research paper will open the minds of its readers, and allow them to see the effects to not making smart decisions and staying protected, whenever having any type of sexual intercourse, whether it being oral, vaginal, or anal. It is important to know and understand what possible infections one might have when being sexually active because if they are not being safe while having sex, then the risk the possibility of spreading their infections to their sexual partner(s). Once you witness the first symptom of something that you feel isn’t normal about your body; you should set up an appointment to go to the doctor to see if you need any medication or alternative ways to kill the infection.

Bacterial transmitted diseases are exactly what it sounds like; diseases that contain bacteria. Bacteria are cells that are made of different variables such as nutrients, water, wastes, and enzymes. Unlike the humans, bacteria are prokaryotes. They do not have a nucleus, or organelles that are membrane bound. According to the Microbiology Society, bacteria are able to reproduce through binary fission; asexual reproduction where bacterium breaks down to two identical daughter cells. The DNA of the bacteria thus breaks into two and synthesizes. Bacteria can reproduce within twenty minutes, if given proper nutrients and other positive conditions. An example of a bacterial STD is Chlamydia. Chlamydia is a bacterial disease that is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia Trachomatis, that affects the anorectal tract, eyes, genital tract, throat, and/or urinary tract. This is a disease that both men and women can contract after engaging in oral, anal, or vaginal sexual intercourse. The only way that someone would get this disease is if one of the people engaging in intercourse already contains it.

As mentioned before, both men and women are at risk of receiving Chlamydia. The reason behind this could be due to misuse of sexual protection or due to an excessive amount of sexual partners. According to the United States Library of Medicine (2019), Chlamydia is most common in young adults; mainly in young women. Women who are diagnosed with Chlamydia will have the chance of passing it to their child. There are several symptoms that relate to being infected with Chlamydia. For women, symptoms include pain while urinating, pain during intercourse, and a yellow looking form of discharge. Men, on the other hand, experience a burning sensation on the exposed opening of the penis, discharge, and like women, also experience pain while urinating. It is extremely important to go visit a doctor if one is experiencing any of these symptoms. Once one goes to the doctor to explain the symptoms that are occurring, the doctor will most likely ask for a urine sample in order to see if there are any signs of the disease. It is dire to go to the doctor because if the infection goes untreated, it can spread to different parts of the body. For example, if the infection were to spread to a woman’s fallopian tubes; it can lead to infertility.

Prescribed antibiotics are normally the treatment for Chlamydia, but it is essential that one who is infected with Chlamydia take the medication as they are supposed, in order to prevent being re-infected. Besides this, Chlamydia can be overall prevented through abstinence, and can be less at risk when having protected sexual relations. Chlamydia coincides with what has been mentioned about the bacterial life cycle because they both happen pretty fast. As previously mentioned, bacteria can reproduce as fast as fifteen to twenty minutes. If the medication is being taken correctly; it takes about seven days for the infection to be gone. Viral sexually transmitted diseases are infections caused by the work of a virus. When people think of a virus, they think of the common cold or stomach virus one tends to get. What people do not understand is the seriousness having a virus can lead to. Viruses can be found with different shapes and sizes. They are created from either DNA or RNA. They are known for occupying a host in order to reproduce and replicate. According to Microbiology Society, a virus’s only purpose is to produce other viruses. Once a virus is able to latch onto its host, it is able to duplicate its genetic makeup, thus creating more viruses. Based on Khan Academy, a virus is considered nonliving, due to the fact that it is unable to reproduce without the help of a host; without the host, the virus is useless.

An example of a viral sexually transmitted disease is human immunodeficiency virus, also known as HIV. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the result to HIV infecting the person through sexual intercourse. HIV causes cells in your immune system to fail, which then allows other viruses to come attack easily. AIDS is a chronic disease that can eventually lead to the death of the person who obtains this disease. The first symptoms of having AIDS are very minor, but then lead to infections such as a yeast infection and ulcers. Eventually, a person can possibly result to having sarcoma or lymphoma cancers. HIV affects both men and women. In the Annual Review of Public Health (2013), study show that women who are from developing countries, mainly South America, are at a higher risk of being contaminated by HIV than those in the United States. It mentions how women who have lesser incomes have higher chances of getting the infection as well. This is important to know this because HIV is not limited to a single race, or gender, and people should understand that not everyone is fortunate enough to receive proper medical care.

As mentioned before, AIDS is caused by the virus HIV. The virus cannot be transmitted through basic contact, but will be if there is any form of exchange between bodily fluids, such as semen and breast milk. It is very common to get this viral infection through the usage of sex, whether it be vaginal, anal, or oral. According to Meyer and Adler (2019), there has been no vaccination created that has been able to prevent AIDS; there have been many trials but none have been found to be successful. Some treatments that people tend to undergo include radiation, surgeries, and chemotherapy. Viral infections are not as easy to treat as bacterial or fungal infections. Like other types of infectious disease, ways to prevent oneself from gaining AIDS is by taking proper contraceptives. If you want to disregard even the slightest possibility of getting infected, abstinence is always the safest bet. Along with this, maintaining a limited number of sexual partners and sharing any form of injection tool with also help one to steer away from getting HIV.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) relates to the information based on the structure and life cycle of a general virus because both last a long amount of time if not treated properly. HIV attaches to us people, thus insisting that we are its host, which then leads to its spread once sexual relations have occurred. Fungal disease are diseases that involve with fungus being present or involved with the disease. According to Boundless Biology, fungi are eukaryotes that can be associated more with animals than with plants. They contain a nucleus and organelles that are membranous. They are able to reproduce through both asexual and/or sexual reproduction, where they can either be classified as a perfect or imperfect fungi. Being a perfect fungi means that the fungus is able to reproduce by both asexual and sexual reproduction, while imperfect fungi are only able to reproduce asexually due to mitosis. Along with this, their sexual reproduction is formed through three stages: plasmogamy, karyogamy, and gametangia.

An example of a fungal sexually transmitted disease is a yeast infection, which can also be known as Candidiasis. Yeast infections are caused by Candida albicans. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.), this fungal infection is an extremely common vaginal affection that affects the genital areas. It is most commonly found in the vagina, but can also live within the mouth, throat, and/ or gut. There are multiple ways for contracting this disease that can range from a woman not drying herself correctly after taking a shower, diabetes, or even menopause. As mentioned before, women are more prone to getting this disease. Yeast infections can be present while a woman is pregnant, she does not have a strong immune system, or is currently taking any hormone-based contraceptives (CDC, n.d.). Even though yeast infections are known for being found in a woman, men are able to obtain the disease as well, which thus leads to the head of the penis inflaming; also known as balanitis. Besides the fact that there are many factors to actually having a yeast infection, there are multiple syptoms as well. Common symptoms from having a vaginal yeast infection include, but are not limited to: itching, soreness, irritation, pain during sexual intercourse, rashes around the vaginal area, etc. It is important that a person checks themselves out when they see one of the symptoms and not brush them off. Even though a yeast infection is treatable; there is no need to make your body suffer through pain.

As mentioned before, a yeast infection is curable. There are multiple types of medication and creams that one can take in order for the swelling and irritation to go down. According to Purcell and Calvagna (2018), treatments usually can range from one to seven days. Some treatments can be over the counter, but others may need a prescription such as Diflucan. Even though this infection can be treated, it is always better to take precautions and think of ways to prevent it from occurring in the first place. Ways to prevent a yeast infection include drying yourself off correctly after a shower, wear cotton underwear, and avoiding anything that deals with perfumed products around the vaginal area. Yeast infections relate to one’s typical understanding of a fungus, because when someone thinks of fungi, they automatically think of mushrooms. One of the symptoms of a yeast infection is the fact that spores could be present, which is a way of realizing that you can a yeast infection.


It is very important to understand the difference between the different kinds of sexually transmitted diseases. After discussing the three types of sexually transmitted diseases (bacterial, viral, and fungal), the reader is now able to distinguish between the three. This research was able to cover the basic knowledge of what a bacteria, virus, and fungi are, thus giving a clearer explanation when talking about the actual STDs. When people typically tend to find new symptoms or feel that something is wrong with them, they go to the internet to see if they could figure out what exactly they have. While some websites are able to provide simple answers, it is always better to go to a doctor and check out the situation before it could possibly get worse. It is important to do this right away and not wait for the disease to just go away, because you never know if it could be something as treatable as a yeast infection, or something as dire as HIV. The one thing that all infections have in common is a way to prevent them from happening in the beginning; either having protected/safe sex, and/or practicing abstinence. People need to remember that every action has a consequence and it turn out in a positive or in a negative way; the positive way being that they were smart and because they were smart, they didn’t harm themselves, and the negative way being that they did not take the proper precautions and ended up getting an infection. It is also crucial that people communicate with the sexual partner if they do have an STD, because they can possibly transmit it to their partner, and it is not morally correct if they had sexual relations with them and they were unaware of the situation. This research paper was for the enhancement of information for those who choose to read it and allow the readers to be aware of the pros and cons of being sexually active, and hopefully sheds light to those who will read it.


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