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A Review on Precision Agriculture: Technologies and Challenges

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Abstract

In this paper we have review agricultural technologies, current challenges, smart irrigation system, different methods for precision agriculture based on artificial intelligence and machine learning, and future directions. 

Introduction

Introduction according to the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the global population will reach 9. 2 billion by the year 2050. To control the world food crisis it is not a solution to plant more crop fields and breeding more cattles. It is needed to increase efficiency of current farming methods. This will be done by using smarter way to grow food for the proper use of land. To cover the world wide food crisis some latest following technologies can be helpful for growing more food. It includes IOTs, SSN, GSN, automated irrigation systems, drones, driverless tractors, crop health monitoring, and facial recognition of insects. To fulfill the needs of humans and society from agriculture a new approach known as precision farming is introduced from last twenty years. It integrates several technologies, collects diverse data, and well analyze it to improve production proficiency while minimizing costs. It practice to manage definite field areas based on changeability within the field. Output margin has declined gradually with current production methods, environmental degradation has risen remarkably, need nearly beneficial to the farmer, farmers cannot afford to wait for the long term benefits, and need easy to use and not time restraining methods for efficient agriculture. Precision agriculture manage each crop production input-fertilizer, limestone, herbicide, insecticide, seed, etc. On a site-specific basis to reduce waste, increase profits, and maintain the quality of the environment. 

Review Papers

According to First review paper: From last twenty years, several types of technologies introduce in agriculture. Different methods have been proposed by the different researchers for precision farming. To increase the plants growth needs the proper management of temperature and humidity. Researchers developed Artificial intelligence and Artificial Neural network and fuzzy logics for intelligent climate control. Some useful technologies are used in precision agriculture. Which comprises GPS/GNSS, mobile devices, robotics, driverless tractor, irrigation, Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV), Internet Of Things (IoT), sensors, variable rate seeding, weather forecast prediction. The four main steps of precision agriculture such as data collection, analysis of data, management decisions, and farming. Data gathering can be with the boundary of field remote sensing, weather data, crop condition, and irrigation testing. The second step data analysis determines pesticide submission, variable rate seeding application, and variable rate fertilizer. Forthcoming technologies for farming need to up to dated to meet the needs of world from plants and agriculture. The conduction of data analysis based on monitoring the soil, crop and weather conditions. Irrigation scheduling engrosses when to irrigate and what amout of water to be provided. A cycle system which is based on the amount of water to be provided and the timing of the irrigation Volume based system which is based on a pre-defined amount of water that can be applied in the field. 

The second review is “Analysis of the Cause-Effect Relation between Tractor Overturns and Traumatic Lesions Suffered by Drivers and Passengers: A Crucial Step in the Reconstruction of Accident Dynamics and the Improvement of Prevention” by Carlo Moreschi, Ugo Da Broi, Sirio Rossano Secondo Cividino, Rino Gubiani, Gianfranco Pergher, Michela Vello and Fabiano Rinaldi. The evaluation of the dynamics of accidents involving the toppling of farm tractors is challenging for both engineers and coroners. 

A complete rebuilding of the bases, vectorial forces, speed, acceleration, timing and direction of rear, front and side rollovers may be complicated by the complexity of the lesions, the absence of witnesses and the death of the operator, and sometimes also by multiple overturns. Careful analysis of the death scene, vehicle, cruel lesions and their evaluation with the mechanical structures of the vehicle and the morphology of the ground, should help experts to rebuild the dynamics of accidents and may help in the design of new protective equipment and processes. 

The third review is “Whole-Body Vibration in Farming: Background Document for Creating a Simplified Procedure to Determine Agricultural Tractor Vibration Comfort” by Maurizio Cutini, Massimo Brambilla and Carlo Bisaglia. The driver exposure to high levels of whole-body vibration (WBV) presents risks to health and safety and it is reported to worsen or even cause back injuries. Driver may face many risks regarding to health and safety. When driver operate such operations by tractor on the unbalance ground (offroad) it causes back injuries. Work activities resulting in operator exposure to whole-body vibration have a common onset in off-road work such as farming. Despite the wide variability of agricultural surface profiles, studies have shown that with changing soil profile and tractor speed, the accelerations resulting from ground input present similar spectral trends. The emission level depends on the nature of ground and operation which is performed The studies indicate the worth, and the likelihood, of developing simplified processes to determine agricultural tractor vibration comfort. The results obtained could be used effectively to compare tractors of the same category or a given tractor when equipped with different seats, suspension, tyres, etc. 

The fourth contribution in this section explores the “Agricultural Health and Safety Survey in Friuli Venezia Giulia” by Sirio Rossano Secondo Cividino, Gianfranco Pergher, Nicola Zucchiatti and Rino Gubiani. In the agricultural sector work has taken on a necessary role in the last decade due to the still too high rate of fatal injuries, workplace accidents, and dangerous occurrences reported each year. The One of the main issues at stake in Italy the use of average old age of agricultural machinery. Two surveys were conducted in different periods numerous safety problems stem from that; Safety in agriculture in relation to agricultural machinery’s age, on current levels of work efficiency, and to show the levels of actual implementation of the Italian legislation on safety and health at work in the agricultural sector. The surveys were conducted, considering a sample of 161 farms located in the region Friuli Venezia Giulia (North-East of Italy). The most significant difficulties highlighted the research sample of farms considered have in enforcing the law. One hand, sanitary surveillance and workers’ information and training represent the main deficiencies and weakest points in family farms. Moreover, family farms do not generally provide the proper documentation concerning health and safety at workplaces, when they award the contract to other companies. On the other hand, lack of maintenance program for machinery and equipment, and of emergency plans and participation of workers’ health and safety representative, are the most common issues in farms with employees. Several difficulties are also evident in planning workers’ training Agriculture 2018, 8, 47 3 of 11 programs. Furthermore, the company physician’s task is often limited to medical controls, so that he is not involved in risk assessment and training. Interviews in heterogeneous samples of farms have shown meaningful outcomes, which have subsequently been used to implement new databases and guidelines for Health and Safety Experts and courses in the field of Work Safety in agriculture. 

The fifth Review is “A Review Paper on IoT Based Smart Irrigation System” by Anjali Dokhande, Chetna Bomble, Rakshanda Patil, Puja Khandekar, Nayan Dhone, Prof. Chandrashekhar Gode. This paper proposes automatic irrigation system. To move from manual system to intelligent IOT based system is applied in the process of irrigation. Watering the plants at right time with right amount of water is very important factor in agriculture and its also essential and critical situation for a farmer to take appropriate decision. In manual irrigation a farmer need to check the field manually its time consuming and not suitable way. IoT based irrigation saves the time of farmer and also provide a smart way to irrigate the crop properly. The temperature, humidity and moisture Sensors are used for amart irrigation system. The moisture sensor measure. The Soil is encompasses of merger of segments including mineral and natural particles, with water and air making up the spaces in the middle. 

The soil is classified because each type of classification has its limit to hold water. When the water enters the soil, it begins to fill the hole between the void spaces in the middle of soil particles. 

Temperature measurement is very important in farming. It plays vital role in agriculture farming. Temperature sensor is used to measure the temperature of atmosphere and according to the proper measurement of temperature the crop is irrigated with suitable amount of water. 

Humidity Measuring sensor measures the humidity in the air and atmosphere. It is the measure of water vapour (water that has abandoned a fluid to an undetectable gas) noticeable all around. Outright humidity is the genuine measure of water vapour in a predetermined volume of air. Relative humidity is the proportion of moisture noticeable all around when contrasted with the most extreme measure of moisture the air can hold. 

Conclusion

In conclusion, all the above talk the technologies used in smart farming the new emerging technologies and its benefits, smart irrigation system its methods and technologies, and the precision agriculture and its efficiency. 

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