An Analysis of The War Between The American and Philippine as Depicted in Mark Twain's Article

About this sample

About this sample


Words: 778 |

Pages: 2|

4 min read

Published: Mar 14, 2019

Words: 778|Pages: 2|4 min read

Published: Mar 14, 2019


Table of contents

  1. The Philippine-American War: A Turning Point
  2. The Shift in U.S. Foreign Policy
  3. Mark Twain's Contribution to Anti-Imperialism
  4. Conclusion

Mark Twain, celebrated as one of America's greatest humorists and literary figures, is often overshadowed by his fervent opposition to the Philippine-American War and his involvement with the Anti-Imperialist League. In 1910, the Anti-Imperialist League acknowledged Twain's remarkable contributions, stating that he "employed in the cause of Anti-Imperialism and in behalf of the Filipino those wonderful weapons of satire which were so absolutely at his command." This essay explores the lesser-known facet of Mark Twain's life as a passionate reformer and anti-imperialist.

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The Philippine-American War: A Turning Point

The Philippine-American War, spanning from February 1899 to July 1902, marked a significant turning point in U.S. foreign policy. After acquiring the Philippines from Spain at the end of the Spanish-American War, the United States aimed to become a major power in Asia. The war aimed to defeat the Filipino revolutionaries and establish American control over the archipelago, which served as a strategic naval coaling station for access to Asian markets, particularly China.

This conflict, initially known as the "Philippine Insurrection," had a more profound impact on the United States than the preceding Spanish-American War. It was characterized by prolonged regional guerrilla warfare and rebellions that extended into the following decade, costing numerous lives and significant resources.

The Shift in U.S. Foreign Policy

The conquest of the Philippines represented a dramatic shift in U.S. foreign policy. While Central and South America had long been within the U.S. sphere of influence, the annexation of the Philippines marked the nation's first significant foray into Asia as a world power. The integration of a commercial and military route from the eastern U.S. coast to its Asian possession reinforced the Philippines as the logistical hub for American commercial expansion in Asia.

Supporters of imperialism viewed it as a means of economic expansion and often justified it with the notion of the "white man's burden," believing it was their duty to extend civilization to supposedly less capable societies. Senator Albert Beveridge passionately argued, "The Philippines are ours forever…just beyond the Philippines are China's illimitable markets."

However, the imperialistic turn in U.S. policy faced strong opposition from those who saw it as a threat to the country's democratic and anti-colonial traditions. The Anti-Imperialist League, founded in Boston in November 1898, emerged as a leading voice against imperialism. Their primary concern was not only supporting the Filipinos but also defending their democratic republic from what they considered an "un-American" policy of imperialism.

The league invoked historical documents like the Declaration of Independence and Lincoln's Gettysburg Address to argue that imperialism contradicted the principles of "government with representation" for which the nation had fought two wars.

Mark Twain's Contribution to Anti-Imperialism

Mark Twain's statements against the war played a significant role in the anti-imperialist movement, even though they came later in the debate. His most influential article, "To the Person Sitting in Darkness," was published shortly after William McKinley's re-election, which was widely seen as a "referendum on imperialism." Twain's essay ignited a fierce controversy, reinvigorating the anti-imperialist movement and restoring momentum lost following the election.

The Springfield Republican, a prominent anti-imperialist newspaper, editorialized that "Mark Twain has suddenly become the most influential anti-imperialist and the most dreaded critic of the sacrosanct person in the White House." Twain's writings on the war transcended the realm of literature; they became powerful political tools.

Mark Twain's opposition to the Philippine-American War was rooted in his deep-seated belief in justice and his disdain for the brutalities inflicted on the Filipino people. His writings, including "To the Person Sitting in Darkness," criticized the United States' actions in the Philippines, shedding light on the harsh realities of war and the hypocrisy of American imperialism.

In his writings, Twain employed satire and sharp wit to expose the contradictions between American ideals of freedom and democracy and the imperialistic actions taken in the Philippines. He used humor as a weapon to puncture the justifications for war and expose the underlying greed and racism that fueled it.


Mark Twain's role as an anti-imperialist continues to resonate in contemporary discussions of U.S. foreign policy. His writings serve as a reminder of the importance of dissenting voices and critical analysis in the face of government actions that may compromise democratic values and principles.

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In conclusion, Mark Twain's contributions to the anti-imperialist movement, though often overshadowed by his humorist persona, were instrumental in challenging the expansionist policies of his time. His powerful writings on the Philippine-American War remain a testament to the enduring importance of speaking out against injustice and the abuse of power.


  1. Zwick, J. (2009). Mark Twain’s Weapons of Satire: Anti-Imperialist Writings on the Philippine-American War. Syracuse University Press.
  2. Ambrose, S. E. (2000). The American Empire. The Wilson Quarterly, 24(3), 65-71.
  3. Anderson, B. (1988). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Verso.
  4. Hofstadter, R. (1969). The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It. Vintage Books.
  5. LaFeber, W. (1994). The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion, 1860-1898. Cornell University Press.
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Dr. Charlotte Jacobson

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An Analysis of the War Between the American and Philippine as Depicted in Mark Twain’s Article. (2019, March 12). GradesFixer. Retrieved March 3, 2024, from
“An Analysis of the War Between the American and Philippine as Depicted in Mark Twain’s Article.” GradesFixer, 12 Mar. 2019,
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