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February 4, 1899 – July 2, 1902
The late 19th-century writings of José Rizal stimulated movement for Philippine independence from Spanish rule. After its defeat in the Spanish-American War of 1898, Spainish colony of the Philippines was ceded to the United States.
On February 4, 1899, shooting erupted on the outskirts of Manila between American forces and Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aguinaldo, the battle became known as the 1899 Battle of Manila. On June 2, 1899, the First Philippine Republic officially declared war against the United States. On March 23, 1901, the Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo was captured, and on July 2, 1902, the war was ended with a victory for the United States.
Due to American victory, the First Philippine Republic was dissoluted. The Philippines became as a U.S. Commonwealth territory. The war lasted three years and resulted in the death of over 4,200 American and over 20,000 Filipino combatants.
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