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An Overview of Fiber Optical Communication

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Fiber optical communication is a technique of communicating from one place to another place by sending the vibration of light between an optical fiber. The light appearance an electronic magnetic convey a signal that is adjusted to convey the data. fiber is preferred over the electrical cable when huge bandwidth long distance, resistance to electromagnetic intercession are needed optical fiber is used in numerous telecommunications companies to transfer telephone signals, internet communication, and cable television signals. A scientist at Bell labs had reached to internet speeds of over 100Pb×Km per second using fiber optical communication


Fiber optical communication is used numerous telecommunication companies to transfer telephone signals internet communication and cable television signals. Due to abundant lower attenuation and interference, the optical fiber had possessed a large advantage over existing copper wire in long distance, high demand application, and high-resolution contents. But infrastructure evolution within the cities relatively difficult and it will take time and fiber optic system was complex and it will cost more money to install and to control. But to this difficulties, fiber optic communication system had essentially been installed in long-distance applications where they can be used to their full transmission capacity offsetting the enlarge cost. The cost fiber optical communication had stopped sustainable over 2000

The cost for rolling out the fiber to the houses had currently become more cost-effective than that the rolling out a copper-based network. Costs had reduced to $850 per subscriber in the United States and lower counters like the Netherlands.

Over 1990’s when the optical amplification systems became commercially obtainable, the telecommunication production had placed a wide network of intercity and transoceanic fiber communication lines. Since 2002 an intercontinental network of 250,000Km of submarine communication cable with a capacity of 2.56Tb per second was accomplished and although particular network capacities are prosperous information telecommunications expenditures reports designated that network had developed since 2004.


Present days fiber optical communication systems mostly included an optical transmitter to transform electrical signals into an optical signals to communicate through optical fiber , a cable accommodate the clump of multiple of optical fibers that are scattered through underground conduits and buildings, multiple kinds of amplifiers and an optical receiver to recover the signal as an electrical signals . The data transmitted is typically digital data created by computers, telephones systems, and cable television companies.


The most frequently used optical transmitters are semiconductors devises such as light emitting diodes and laser diodes. The dissimilarity between LED’s and laser diodes is that LED’s manufacture incoherent light. But laser diodes manufacture coherent light. In optical communications, semiconductors optical transmitters must be designed to be compact, efficient and reliable, while operating in an optimal wavelength range and directly modulated at high frequencies

In its smallest form, an LED is a forward biased pun junction, emitting light is incoherent with a relatively wide insubstantial with 30 to 60nm. LED light transmission is also ineffective, with only about 1% of input.

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