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Early 69 BC
10 August 30 BC (aged 39)
Spouse Mark Antony
Cleopatra was a daughter of King Ptolemy XII Auletes. During her early childhood, Cleopatra received a primarily-Hellenistic Greek education from her tutor Philostratos. When her father Ptolemy XII died in 51 BC, Cleopatra became co-regent with her 10-year-old brother Ptolemy XIII, but a falling-out between them led to open civil war. She was a highly intelligent woman and an astute politician, and was well-versed in many languages, including Egyptian, Ethiopian, Hebrew, Arabic, and Latin.
In 48 BC, Egypt became embroiled in the conflict in Rome between Julius Caesar and Pompey. After a few months of war between Caesar's forces and Ptolemy XIII, Caesar restored the throne to the Cleopatra and her younger brother Ptolemy XIV. Caesar and Cleopatra became lovers and around 47 BC, she gave birth to a son, Caesarion. Cleopatra traveled with Ptolemy XIV and Caesarion to Rome, but after his assassination in 44 BC, she returned to Egypt. After Ptolemy XIV mysterious death, Cleopatra made her son Caesarion co-regent.
In 42 BC, Mark Antony and Octavian divided power in Rome, and Antony summoned Cleopatra to the Cicilian city of Tarsus for explanations of Caesar’s assassination. Soon, the queen had an affair with Antony and subsequently they had three children.
After the “Donations of Alexandria,” a war of propaganda between Antony and the Octavian began. In late 32 BC, Octavian declared war on Cleopatra. Octavian’s forces defeated combined forces of Antony and Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. When they fled to Egypt, Octavian pursued them. Cleopatra retired to her mausoleum as Antony went off to fight his last battle. Antony heard a false rumor that Cleopatra had committed suicide, he fell on his sword. Cleopatra committed suicide on 12 August 30 BC. As result, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire.
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