About this sample
About this sample
Words: 1652 |
9 min read
Published: Jun 17, 2020
Words: 1652|Pages: 4|9 min read
Anxiety is an emotional behavior that is associated with high levels of tension, the continuous stream of worrying thoughts, and could also cause physical changes in the body such as an increase in blood pressure. In the past, anxiety was highly associated with the fear of predators or imminent danger. However, most cases of anxiety in the contemporary society are associated with daily activities such as work, family life and related aspects such as money. Knowing this helps to beware of developing an anxiety disorder. Studies show that treatment of anxiety disorders are more successful when they are diagnosed early. Hence, whenever one is noted to be wary of daily activities so much, they should get checked for anxiety disorders. Anxiety behavior can take different forms due to the presence of different types of anxiety disorders such as the panic disorder, the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder. Different theories can be used to explain the aspect of anxiety behavior and how the behavior can be remedied.
Cognitive behavioral theory (CBT) is the most effective theory that can be used to explain the aspect of anxiety disorder. There are different groups of individuals that have higher chances of developing anxiety. Broader studies indicate that women are more prone to anxiety disorders compared to men. Other groups include individuals below the age of 35 years and individuals diagnosed with chronic illnesses. These groups should be specifically monitored to aid in early diagnosis of anxiety disorders, which in turn aids in effective treatment.
A number of studies have been conducted on the topic of anxiety behavior detailing the types of anxiety, the at-risk groups of developing anxiety, and the theories that are related to anxiety. According to David et al, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best standard in the field of psychotherapy that can be used to manage anxiety issues (2018). The researchers use a number of facts to back up their claim. Foremost, they point out that cognitive behavioral therapy is the most researched form of psychotherapy. Therefore, it is assumed that it is the most advanced method given that the intensive research has been used to improve CBT overtime. Secondly, the paper points out that there is no form of psychotherapy that is systematically superior to CBT, and in cases where there are any systemic differences between psychotherapies, they favor cognitive behavioral therapy. There are other arguments presented in the paper to support the thesis statement. For instance, the models of theoretical change of CBT have been researched more than other methods. As such, they are in tandem with the human mind and behavior mainstream paradigms that are current.
Furthermore, the gap of knowledge that exists in cognitive behavioral therapy attract more researchers to exploit the field. As such, specialists dealing with anxiety can find something to apply out of the several principles of CBT in use currently. The other set of authors outline the effect of CBT for anxiety disorders on the quality of life. Their paper is more directly related with the topic of this paper, and creates a link as well with the first paper reviewed in this literature review. It is affirmed that indeed CBT is effective for anxiety disorders. However, the effect of using cognitive behavioral therapy to treat anxiety disorders on the quality of life is relatively unknown. The authors therefore conducted a study in a bid to establish this unknown effect. This study revealed a number of things. Foremost, how effective CBT is depends on the mode of delivery. The method is more effective when delivered on a face-to-face basis than when delivered virtually through the internet. Additionally, cognitive behavioral therapy becomes more effective when used for longer durations than when administered for short durations. It was also realized that CBT delivers positive effects for physical and psychological domains of quality of life. However, the method is not so effective for environmental and social domains of quality of life. Based on these findings, it was concluded that CBT is moderately effective for improving qualities of life when used for treatment of anxiety disorders.
The other paper looked at anxiety disorders from a different point of view. The paper indicates that anxiety disorders are the most prevalent in the United States among psychiatric disorders. In addition, the negative impacts of these disorders have been outlined. These include significant disability, poor life quality, alcohol, and drug abuse. The authors affirm that anxiety disorders are treatable and mention cognitive behavioral therapy and serotonin reuptake inhibitors as viable treatment options for the disorders. However, according to Bystrisky et al, only about 60% of patients respond positively to these treatment methods (2013). The resistant group of anxiety disorder patients end up having a very low quality of life, and are prone to suicidal attempts. The paper focuses on the biological, social, and treatment specific factors that lead to resistance to treatment of anxiety disorders. For instance, personality disorders have been identified as a major cause of the resistance to treatment. Examples are the OCD personality disorder being confused with OCD and borderline personality. The paper recommends doing a thorough diagnosis before any treatment is issued to avoid such cases. Other examples of causes of resistance identified are the fact that the theories of anxiety, such as biological and cognitive theories do not fully explain the complexities of anxiety disorders. Thus, the specialist who treat them have to make some assumptions of their own, and this contributes to resistance in treatment. The other set of authors look at treatment of anxiety disorders.
According to Bandelow et al, the success of the method of treatment for anxiety disorders depends on the approach taken by the clinical specialist (2017). The study shows that there are high successes when all the theories of anxiety are taken into consideration during the diagnosis process. Also, some treatment methods are seen to fail due to the manner in which they are conducted. The authors advise that treatment methods should be performed according to the established standards. Furthermore, the study revealed that the treatment methods of anxiety disorders have seen several improvements over time due to continuous research in the field. The last literature under review is also centered on CBT as a method of anxiety treatment. Some of the anxiety disorders that can be treated using CBT are obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The paper outlines the two most common methods of CBT in use, that is, exposure and cognitive therapy. The effectiveness of each of these methods for each particular anxiety disorder is evaluated using empirical data collected over time. A few of the difficulties that arise when administering treatments are highlighted, and suggestions for areas that need future research given.
All the literature materials reviewed in this paper agree that anxiety disorders are a great problem that have to be dealt with. The various effects of anxiety disorders have been explained in detail in the different literature sources used to come up with this paper. CBT clearly comes out as a favored method of treatment of anxiety disorders for a number of reasons. Foremost, it is the one that all of the papers have looked at. In fact, only two out of the five papers look at other treatment methods that exist. Although only one paper out rightly claims that cognitive behavioral therapy is by far the best treatment method, the other back this claim up simply by focusing so much on it. Secondly, most of the recommendations on future research recommend that the technique be studied further. This also shows how CBT is favored among other methods of dealing with anxiety disorders.
Although CBT is highly effective, the papers explain that its effectiveness depends on a number of factors. Foremost, studies prove that the technique is more effective for face-to-face delivery than for virtual delivery via the internet. It is therefore recommended that patients with anxiety disorders see therapists on a face-to-face basis. Secondly, from the empirical data presented and analysis in the different papers, the method is more successful when used over long periods of time. It is thus important that both patient and therapist be committed to each other until the disorder is completely dealt with. No paper looked at the effects of switching from one therapist to another. The papers did not look at the theories of anxiety in depth. However, it is evident that these theories postulate different reasons for the causes of anxiety disorders. Therefore, depending on the theory being applied by the specialist, the treatment approach can slightly differ for two patients with the same disorder. The papers are in tandem that the theories in place do not exhaustively explain anxiety disorders. This has a disadvantage since it implies that specialists have to make some calculated guesses to make up for what is not explained.
Anxiety disorders cannot be assumed due to the adverse effects they have on people, such as development of disabilities and suicide attempts. Much effort in terms of studies and research have been put to remedy this condition among those who are unfortunate to suffer it. Cases of anxiety disorders are more prevalent on some people, and they are generally termed at-risk groups. This include women, people diagnosed with chronic illnesses, and individuals below age 35. A number of theories attempt to explain anxiety disorders, though they fail to do so exhaustively. Luckily, anxiety disorders can be treated. Different treatment methods exist based on different theories, and the most effective one is the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) technique. Studies show that treatment is more effective when offered face-to-face and for longer durations of time. Additionally, treatments are more effective when diagnosis is done early. However, there are some people with anxiety disorders who are resistant to treatment. It is recommended that more research should be conducted to determine how to solve this predicament.
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