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League of Nations was an International organization established by the alliance of the countries which won in World War I. It was established in January 10, 1920. It was established after the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The aims and objectives of LoN were disarmament, prevention of war, collective security and setting disputes between the member countries through diplomacy and discussion which improves global warfare.
The idea of establishing League of Nations originated when US President Woodrow Wilson presented his fourteen points to prevent bloodshed after World War I. One of the fourteen points focused specifically on the general association of these nations so that they can collectively protect each other from any such event. The proposal of these fourteen points was presented in Paris Peace conference where it got accepted and League of Nations was formed.
League of Nations can be considered strong in some ways. By 1930s, 60 countries joined the League of Nations by signing the Covenant of maintaining peace and helping countries which were attacked. World powers used to meet 4-5 times a year to solve any kind of disputes. Their major strength came from the fact that LoN was set up by the treaty of Versailles which was signed by 32 countries. Their alliance had the power to make other countries obey to them. Another example that depicts their strength is the fact that the League was morally condemned – they would call out a country who did wrong in public, it was called “the Community of Power” by the League. The League also acted as an arbitrator between quarrelling nations, just like it did in 1921 between Sweden and Finland over the dispute of Aaland Islands. The League also had the authority to apply trading sanctions, like it did in 1930s over Manchuria and Abyssinia. The League also had military alliance.
The League had some great weaknesses as well. The three most powerful countries in the world including USA, Russia and Germany were not the members. Germany joined after 1925. It was not a problem for solving or controlling powers on small countries and disputes but to make a big country do as they wish, they needed support of super powers (for example, Italy over Cofu in 1923). They were also weak in their structure. Assembly had the power to make a decision by a unanimous vote. In the Council, all permanent members had Veto, The Conference of Ambassadors kept overruling the decisions made by the Council. The structure was messed up. Their major strength also became their greatest weakness. The Treaty of Versailles had many flaws but the League enforces it. The Treaty was hated by superpowers which made them hate the LoN as well.
The incident of First World War and its consequences led to the formation of League of Nations but it failed in meeting its objectives and a second world war broke out. After learning from the failure of the League of Nations, it was realized that a much stronger union of countries is needed therefore on 24 October 1945, United Nations came into existence. Today, UN has 192 countries listed as members. The headquarters are located in New York, USA. The aims and principles of the organization included maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relationships among countries, encourage worldwide cooperation, promoting human rights and freedom and serve as a platform where different nations can coordinate and solve their problems.
United Nations has declared 30 basic human rights the provision of which is the basic right of every human. There are thirty articles in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights which should be provided to every human. One of these articles include The Right of Freedom and equality which states that every human is free and equal because we are all born free and equal and we should all be treated the same way for example, White and Black, both should be treated the same way. The second is The Equality Before The Law, which states that all humans are equal and should be treated equally and fairly in the eyes of the law. For example, the laws applying to a rich businessman are same as they are to any common man in a particular case and nobody is prejudiced in the eyes of the law.
United Nations is better than the League of Nations in all ways. It has a better structure and enough members to have control or authority over something. It included superpowers as well unlike League of Nations. It provides better solutions and addresses problems more efficiently as compared to the League of Nations.
In 1935, when Italian troops invaded Abyssinia, the LoN declared Italy as an aggressor and it imposed economic sanctions on Italy to stop invasions but they continued which shows that LoN could not control and failed in maintaining peace while UN on the other hand is strong in enforcing power. For example, In Suez Crisis, UN sent a peacekeeping force to separate Israelites and Egyptians. They also sent troops to Korean War and Gulf War in 1950s and 1990s which remained successful. Hence it is proved that UN has been successful in its objectives as compared to LoN.
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