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DBMSA database is an organized collection of data. A relational database is a collection of schemes, tables, queries, reports, views, and other elements. A database management system (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with end users, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS allows the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases.
Large no. of files used. Less no. of files used. Better security, username, and password Does not provide security. Redundancy problem is solved as data is independent. Data redundancy is a problem loss of integrity. Data access take lots of time. It takes less time. Vast permanent design Little preliminary design.
A data model is an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to properties of the real world entities. The term data model is used in two distinct but closely related senses. Sometimes it refers to an abstract formalization of the objects and relationships found in a particular application domain. A data model explicitly determines the structure of data. Data models are specified in a data modeling notation, which is often graphical in form. A data model can sometimes be referred to as a data structure, especially in the context of programming languages. Data models are often complemented by function models, especially in the context of enterprise models.
The main aim of data models is to support the development of information systems by providing the definition and format of data. According to West and Fowler (1999) “if this is done consistently across systems then compatibility of data can be achieved. If the same data structures are used to store and access data then different applications can share data.
Design of a database is called the schema. The schema is of three types: Physical schemalogical schema view schema. The design of a database at a physical level is called physical schema, how the data stored in blocks of storage is described at this level. Design of database at a logical level is called logical schema, programmers and database administrators work at this level, at this level data can be described as certain types of data records gets stored in data structures, however the internal details such as implementation of data structure is hidden at this level (available at physical level). Design of database at view level is called view schema. This generally describes end-user interaction with database systems. The data stored in the database at a particular moment of time is called an instance of the database. The database schema defines the variable declarations in tables that belong to a particular database; the value of these variables at a moment of time is called the instance of that database.
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