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The second type is made according to the distribution of phrases, and the relationship between their constituents. The terms endocentric and exocentric are used for the phrases and its functions. Endocentric phrase is one which functionally equivalent to the one or more constituents. That is a word or a group of words, which as a definable head. Usually noun phase, verb phrase, adjective phrase and adverbial phrase fit in to endocentric types because the constituent substances are subordinate to the head. This type of phrases the primary constituent or constituents are comparable to the whole construction. For example, the phrase good old Ali is endocentric because of the headword Ali, which is a noun.
The rest of the phrase, apart from the head, is optional and can be detached without losing the basic meaning. The opposite of an endocentric phrase is an exocentric phrase. An exocentric phrase, which the primary constituent or constituents do not function like the complete construction. For example, in the hotel is exocentric because the constituent the hotel functions differently from the prepositional phrase. The exocentric denotes to a group of syntactically connected words where no words are functionally equal to the group as whole, so there is no definable head inside the group or the middle phrase signifies the head.
Phrases have something in common which namely define as head. (Aarts, 2001: 104) Except for the obligatory element (Head – H), some other elements within phrases to justify the meaning of a head. These are determiners, modifiers and complements. Determiners occur only in noun phrases (NPs). Determiners include articles, demonstratives, quantifiers, and possessive determiners. They are not formal word classes, but functional elements of construction (e.g. this book). Modifiers almost appear in all types of phrases. Modifier is a word, phrase or a clause which functions as an adjective or adverb to bound or quantify the meaning of another word called the head. According to its place in relation to the head it is as premodifier which appears in front of the head, for example, a beautiful flower “a” as premodifier.
Post modifier which seems after the head, for example, a boat big enough to hold us”. Modifiers of verbs are called adjuncts. For example, in a sentence “My mother bought a gift for Ali in London last month”, the verb bought controls all the other phrases in the clause and is the head of the clause. Time expressions in London, and last month, convey the information when and where something happened. They are always optional and are held to be adjuncts.
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