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A conjunctive adverb connects two independent clauses or sentences. Other adverbs modify or add to a word, but a conjunctive affects two sentences. The word “conjunctive” comes from the Latin for “join together.
A conjunctive adverb brings together two complete thoughts. Each clause can stand on its own as a sentence. The first clause is followed by a semi-colon. Sometimes there is a comma after the conjunctive adverb. Following is a list of conjunctive adverbs: also, anyway, besides, certainly, earlier, finally, further, for instance, for example, however, hence, in addition, instead, later, likewise, moreover, namely, next, now, nevertheless, on the other hand, otherwise, perhaps, so, still, then, therefore, thus, and undoubtedly. Conjunctive adverbs can be grouped according to function. This may help you understand them a bit better: Sometimes their function is addition, and examples of these would be: “in addition, next, still, also, and again.” Comparison is another way they work, such as words like “also, likewise, and similarly.” Concession is sometimes made with words like “granted and of course. “Adverbs like “although, instead, in spite of, and regardless”, show a contrast. Sometimes emphasis is the function, with words like “indeed, of course, and certainly. “ Conjunctive adverbs can illustrate with words such as: “for example, namely, thus, and in conclusion. “ Words that summarize include: “all in all, that is, in summary, and finally.” Time can be referred to with these words: “before, meanwhile, furthermore, lately, now, since, and thereafter”.
Conjunctive adverbs are also called adverbial conjunctions. Here are a few examples to further illustrate what they do for sentences. I wanted to see a scary movie; however, my friend wanted to see a comedy. You need to concentrate on your studies; otherwise, you will fail the class. The thunder and lightning were intense; consequently, the crowd dispersed. He enjoyed getting a new tie; nevertheless, a sports car would have been a better gift. We really need to go to the mall; in addition, we should see a movie. Conjunctive adverbs act like conjunctions; however, they are adverbs.
Conjunctive adverbs can also function as a regular adverb and modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. In this case, they will not need extra punctuation. Here is an example: “He was accordingly very interested in jazz.”In this sentence the word “accordingly” is acting like an adverb and modifying the verb “interested.” Many times, a conjunctive adverb will start a sentence and need a comma after it since it appears before an independent clause. Following are some examples: Therefore, I will eat green eggs and ham. In other words, English is a hard language. Above all, we must try and save the planet. Remember, adverbs change or modify verbs. Many end with “ly” which makes them easy to spot. Other adverbs, such as conjunctive adverbs may also end with “ly” (such as accordingly) or may not end in “ly” (such as also, next and before)
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