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Intellectual disability (I.D.) is not an uncommon condition and it may be present from birth or childhood. Some significant conditions that are seen in those individuals that have I.D. are lower intellectual functioning than an average person of the same age, having significant delays in developing ones social and communication skills, and their ability to live independently or to care for themselves. Intellectual disability, however, has a wide range of functioning from mild to profound.
Intellectual disability is characterised by considerable delays in cognitive, social, practical, and abstract learning skills. Adaptive skills pr the development of adaptive skills may be an issue for those who have I.D. Adaptive skills include such skills as communications skills, personal care skills, social skills, the ability to interact with the community, taking care of one’s health and safety, having leisure activities, performing in school or work. Practical and cognitive tests are used on an individual to classify them as having intellectual disability. Intelligence
The majority of juveniles with below-average IQ scores, in the range of 70 to 89, are not considered to have intellectual disability. Those adolescents that come with mild disability come up to about 85 percent of all cases of intellectual disabilities. They are portrayed as functioning two to four years behind their developmental stage or having an IQ range of 50 to 75. Some of these children with mild disability may not be diagnosed with the condition until they are well into their school years. Those with mild disability are often characterised by their slow development of walking skills, and also talking or communication skills. They are also slower to learn how to feed themselves than most children. However, they are able to learn practical skills such as math and even reading up to the grade six level.
Moderate disability is often characterised by children having IQ in the range from 35 to 49. Children with moderate disability also tend to exhibit development delays in speech skills and also in motor skills. Basic communication skills are able to be learned by those with mild disability and they are also able to learn a few habits that aid their health and safety and they are also able to learn other essential skills in regards to day to day living, however they are usually not likely to obtain academic skills like reading or math.
Out of all the case of intellectual disabilities, 3 to 5 percent of those cases fall under the severe disability category. Diagnoses for those with severe disability often happen at birth or soon after birth while the IQ ranges from 20 to 34. Motor development and communication are difficult for these children to learn. Feeding oneself and bathing oneself, and self-help skills as such are able to be learnt by those with severe disability, however, only with training. Learning how to walk and gaining a general grasp or comprehension of speech comes with age. They can be able to follow daily routines, as adults, and they may be able to perform simple tasks provided that they are directed and live in an environment that is protected.
After severe disability comes profound disability and this level of intellectual disability is characterised by individuals having an IQ of less than 20. Profound disability is often diagnosed at birth. Profound disability is also accountable for 1 to 2 percent of those with I.D.
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