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The Definition of The Pervasive Developmental Disorder

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The word “autism” or “autistic” are developed from the Greek word “autos” meaning “self.” Leo Kanner used the term “autistic” in 1943 to describe 19 children that were qualitatively different that children diagnosed with childhood schizophrenia. (Cipani, 2011) Autism also is known as Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) or an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) occurs when a child has a severe qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction and communication skills and restricted range of activities and interests. (APA, 2000). Specifically, the child with autism doesn’t appear to have the intuitive ability to socialize, has difficulty with verbal and nonverbal communication and demonstrate a tendency to engage in unusual interests and ways of playing.

Autism is a biological disorder neurological condition that is usually diagnosed before three years of age. Three distinct criteria, which are often referred to as the triad of impairments, are used to diagnose autism. These criteria include 1) “qualitative impairment in social interaction 2) qualitative impairments in communication 3) restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior (DSM-IV, 2000) Scientific evidence suggests that various factors, both genetic and environmental, contribute to the onset of autism spectrum disorders by influencing early brain development. (WHO, 2013) The first signs of autism, such as disturbances in sleeping and feeding problems, may undergo unnoticed, as they are typical of many children in the first year. Gradually the parents have problem comforting the child, who also may not be drawn towards the social activities, preferring to play alone and who doesn’t point to objects he wants you to notice. The child doesn’t pay attention and give importance to objectives rather than man. While excited, a child may literally jump for the joy or have an unusual way of expressing pleasure by characteristics hand flapping and a contorted facial expression.

Autism is four more prevalent in boys than girls. Every day, 53 babies are born in the United States who will later diagnose with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Autism Society of America, 2008). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) called autism as a national public health concern whose cause and cure remain unknown. Autism is one of the spectrums of behaviourally defined “pervasive developmental disorders” which ate commonly referred to as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The deficits in social communication and presence of restricted interests and repetitive behaviors result in lifelong impairments and disability. ASD has been reported to affect as many as 1 in 88 children in the US. Reported prevalence rates have risen dramatically in the last two decades, though little is understood about the increase. Epidemiological surveys of adult populations suggest that the apparent rise in numbers of affected children may not represent a true increase in prevalence rates. Nevertheless, there is an assumption that broadened definitions, growing awareness, and diagnostic substitution may be contributing to the apparent rise.

Regardless of the cause, the current prevalence estimates that there raw more than 2 million individuals in the Us with ASD. To date, no preventive strategies have demonstrated consistent benefits and no treatments have proven widely efficacious in treating the core symptoms of ASD. Consequently, ASD causes lifelong disabilities for affected individuals and significant burdens on their families, schools, and society. (Thurm, 2012)

To find out the knowledge regarding the care of an autistic child To find out the knowledge regarding autism among the parents of children with autism The findings may be helpful to plan for awareness program on autism and to some extent might help in the prevention of autism. This study would be helpful to the policy level to help the caretakers by providing training in regard to the care of autism. It would be also helpful for the caretakers to identify a child with the problem as early as possible. It might also help to know about the understanding level of parents of a child with autism and may help to develop the programs according to the level of understanding. And it may be helpful to know the difference between the parents who are aware and who aren’t aware of the autism.

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