The Layers of The Earth and Their Function

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About this sample

About this sample


Words: 362 |

Page: 1|

2 min read

Published: Jan 15, 2019

Words: 362|Page: 1|2 min read

Published: Jan 15, 2019

The Earth is like a giant layer cake made up of many different layers and different fillings. Except the Earth fillings are not made up of good tasting frosting and cake but more rocks and metal. There are four different layers of the Earth discussed in this essay. These layers include the crust, the mantle, the inner core and the outer core.

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At the very surface of the Earth is the crust, the topmost layer, made mostly out of solid rocks. It also is made up of iron, oxygen, silicon, magnesium and aluminium. It is the thinnest layer out of all the layers. The crust is the deepest in areas where there are mountains. It can be 43 miles thick in those areas.

The Mantle is made up of rock, silicon, iron, magnesium, aluminum and oxygen. The mantle is 500 to 900 degrees. It is divided into the upper and lower mantle. They make up most of the Earth’s layers like to the other layers. Although made up of solid rock, the mantle is not completely hard. It is extremely hot. The movement of the mantle is what causes volcanoes to erupt and earthquakes to occur.

The inner core is mostly made up of nickel and iron. The temperature in the inner core is about 9,806 degrees, which is about the temperature of the sun. Scientists have never been able to go to the inner core due to the high temperature. In 1997, scientists did experiments that showed the inner core was spinning faster than the rest of the Earth.

The outer core is made of liquid and other metals. The outer core is the only liquid core. The layer is responsible for the Earth’s magnetic field. The magnetic field protects the Earth from things that can be harmful from the sun.

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Even though we only see the Earth’s crust, the thinnest layer, the Earth is not one solid rock. It is made up of different layers that each has a different purpose. The crust is the top layer that we see, the mantle causes volcanoes and earthquakes, the inner core spins and the outer core protects us from things that can harm us from the sun.

Works Cited

  1. Aldridge, M. (2015). Inside planet Earth. National Geographic Kids.
  2. Anderson, D. L. (2015). The interior of the Earth: an interdisciplinary perspective. Cambridge University Press.
  3. Bowring, S. A., Williams, I. S., & Compston, W. (1989). 238U–235U systematics in terrestrial uranium-bearing minerals. Science, 246(4934), 962-970.
  4. Christensen, U. R. (1996). The Earth's mantle: composition, structure, and evolution. Cambridge University Press.
  5. Duffy, T. S., Anderson, O. L., & Goncharov, A. F. (2001). Thermodynamics of mantle minerals—II. Phase equilibria. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 43(1), 65-124.
  6. Foulger, G. R. (2010). Plates vs. plumes: A geological controversy. Wiley-Blackwell.
  7. Jacobsen, S. B., & Garnero, E. J. (2010). A layered mantle transition zone in the northwest Pacific. Nature, 466(7307), 1062-1065.
  8. Riffenburgh, B. (2013). Encyclopedia of the Antarctic. Routledge.
  9. Rolf, T., & Snieder, R. (2013). The Earth's mantle: from seismic tomography to mineral physics. Cambridge University Press.
  10. Tanimoto, T., & Lay, T. (2000). The Earth's mantle. Nature, 405(6782), 633-634.
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Earth’s Layers. (2019, January 15). GradesFixer. Retrieved December 5, 2023, from
“Earth’s Layers.” GradesFixer, 15 Jan. 2019,
Earth’s Layers. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 5 Dec. 2023].
Earth’s Layers [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Jan 15 [cited 2023 Dec 5]. Available from:
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