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The drainage pattern of an area depends upon following factors
Geological time period of drainage basin.
Nature, structure and type of rocks.
Slope and topography of that area.
Rainfall, amount of flow and periodicity of flow of water.
Dendritic the term dendritic originiates fromgreek word dendrites (pertaining like a tree). In dendritic water channels join together in a manner that it resembles like the branches of a tree. It is found in the areas where the water channels follow the slope of terrain. Example rivers of northern plains ganga, Yamuna, etc.
Trellis drainage in this drainage system the tributaries flow parallel to each other and to the main channel. They join the mainstream of river at approximately right angles, thus resembling like trellise. These are the characteristics of fold mountains. Example- The old fold mountains of singhbhum( chotanagpur pleateau) has trellis drainage pattern.
Rectangular drainage: this drainage pattern is marked by right angled bends juctions between tributaries and mainstream. It more irregular and its tributaries are neither long nor parallel as in trellis pattern. Example – Rectangular drainage pattern is found in Vindhyas mountains.
Parallel- Here the rivers and its tributaries flow approximately parallel to each other. It is due to the steep slopes with some relief. Due to steep slopes the streams are generally swift and are almost straight. The rivers have very few tributaries and all of them flow in the same direction. Example – in western ghats, small and swift rivers originiate and follow parallel drainage pattern and discharge their water in Arabian sea.
Radial – the radial drainage pattern develops when rivers originiating from a hill( central point) flows in all directions and resembles like the spoke of a wheel. Example Son, Mahanadi, Narmada etc originiating from Amarkantak range and flowing in all directions.
Centripetal drainage- It is opposite of Radial drainage pattern. Here rivers discharge there water from all directions in a lake or a depression. Example – Loktak Lake of Manipur.
Annular drainage system – when the streams flow through approximately circular or concentric path along the belt of weak rock system and resemble to a ring like pattern, it is known as annular pattern. Example – Nilgiri hills found in Tamilnadu and Kerela has annular drainage pattern.
Deranged drainage pattern – when there is no coherent drainage pattern of flow to the rivers and lakes, it is referred as deranged drainage pattern. It happens in areas of geological disruptions like recently vacated ice sheets etc. The melting of ice- sheets leave the land with many irregularities leading to deranged pattern. Example – Deranged drainage pattern are found in the glaciated valleys of Karakoram range.
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