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Four Irrefutable Challenges of Morality

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Morals are the prevailing standards of behavior that enable people to live cooperatively in groups. Moral refers to what societies sanction as right and acceptable. Most people tend to act morally and follow societal guidelines. “What is morality?” essay explains that morality often requires that people sacrifice their own short-term interests in the benefit of society. Also, there are 4 challenges to morality that are discussed in following paragraphs. 

First, the challenge of Positivism, positivism will only be meaningful when there were analytic or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic. Positivism is expressing how you feel and positivism is the same as emotivism. Emotivism is all about expressions of emotions. We have different feelings of each issue we know for example EJK (Extrajudicial Killing), many people were against Extra judicial killing but others say they deserve it because they took others lives. One of the issues in our country that they were always talking even in the government is teenage pregnancy. Abortion is the ending of pregnancy, an immoral way of killing a fetus in short life. Some thinks that to avoid teenage pregnancy is to do an abortion but in reality abortion is a mortal sin. This is a factual non-sense but emotionally it is very meaningful. We spend a lot of time telling how we feel about issues. Just like the theory of emotivism said, it is all about expressions of emotions. Emotivism implies that we are impeccable we can never be wrong with our feelings. Positivism is like criticizing the errors on someone or something in a disapproving way to improve improved.

Second, the challenge of Relativism, according to relativism there are moral principle that relative to each individual or the cultural you happen to be living it. An example of individual relativism is for example for other abortion is legal but for others it is illegal. An example of cultural relativism is same-sex marriage, in our country same-sex marriage is prohibited and in other countries like Spain, Canada, Brazil, Norway, Sweden, etc. The most commonly line of relativism is the culture or the beliefs of each people. Based on my culture (Ilocano and Kapampangan) one of the stereotype of that I heard from Ilocano’s is they are hard workers and as for Kapampangan they are good at cooking. Relativism begins with the view that people (or cultures) do in fact have fundamentally different or practices. There all some moral rules that all societies must have in common. Based on my research there are 7 moral rules found all around the world those are love your family, help your group, return favors, be brave, defer to authority, be fair, and respect others’ property. To my knowledge there are many more unwritten rules in the whole world for example The young ones must be cared, must say the truth, and respect to everything (people and the surroundings).

Fourth, The challenge of determinism. Determinism obviously explains that we cannot point out that a person is responsible for his doings unless he does have the rights to or it does have the authority to continue on what it should mean to do. Based on my comprehension, there are still a lot of things in this world that we can say we are always responsible for what we are doing. Being a human being, we need to make ourselves believe that in everything we do, we are always responsible for it. Each of us have our own free will, it is not true that determinism denies free will. We are free to do anything we want, but we should always remember that in everything we do, we are responsible. We are free to make decisions but still we should not forget to think about the consequences we might face. For some way, there was still a judgement that a person can tell if it still states that “no one is responsible for his actions” and “every person is responsible for his actions”. For example, there is a person who got imprisoned, but he is not responsible for his actions. His Attorney was the one who was responsible for his actions. Why? The man who got imprisoned was innocent, his cases are clearly closed. His Attorney did something wrong to send him to prison again. The man was imprisoned for four years, but he had no choice. With this example, we can clearly state who is responsible and who is not responsible. In addition, “people are free to choose how they act” whether in a good way or in bad way.

To sum up, people or entities that are indifferent to right and wrong are considered amoral, while those who do evil acts are considered immoral. The basic explanation of morality is what is right and what is wrong. For example, you found something that doesn’t belong to you and took it to give it back, because you know that no one is looking you keep it.

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Four Irrefutable Challenges of Morality. (2023, February 11). GradesFixer. Retrieved March 26, 2023, from
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