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Galileo born on February 15, 1564, in Pisa Dutchy of Florence and died on January 8th, 1642 in Arcetri, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Italy. Galileo was an Italian polymath, he was a central figure in the transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution.
Galileo’s study on speed and velocity, gravity and free fall, the principle of relativity, inertia, projectile motion and worked in applied science and technology, describing the properties of pendulums and “”hydrostatic balances””, inventing the thermoscope and various military compasses, and using the telescope for scientific observations of celestial objects. His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, the observation of Saturn’s rings (though he could not see them well enough to discern their true nature) and the analysis of sunspots.
Galileo Embraced the theory of the earth revolving around the sun and the other way around. It’s also called the Copernican theory or the Heliocentric system. After 1610 when he used his telescope to find bodies that were never observed before, Galileo was convinced he found proof of the Copernican Theory.
Galileo wanted more than making discoveries, according to Grande Dizionario Enciclopedico UTET. Galileo had the hope and goal of convincing the princes and cardinal that his Heliocentric System was in fact true. Galileo wanted to gain the Church’s support and no objection.
Galileo traveled to Rome in 1611, there he met High-ranking Clergy. He demonstrated his astronomical discoveries using his telescope. But things went sour, and by 1616, Galileo was put under watch by the Clergy.
The Heliocentric Theory was labeled as “philosophically foolish, and obscured”.
Cardinal Robert Bellarmine considered the Greatest Catholic Theologian of his time met with Galileo and rebuked Galileo and told him to end his ideas getting to people to believe in the sun-centered system.
Galileo though appalled did not renounce his ideas of the Copernican Theory. Galilei appeared in front of the Inquisition court in 1633, a battered old man. The Previous Cardinal that had rebuked him was dead, Galileo obstacle was Pope Urban VIII, he was more flexible. The trial along with Socrates and Jesus was considered the most unjust in history.
The publishing of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World System by Galileo activated heliocentrism which rose opposition. Ordered to present himself in court Galileo due to old age was ill. He was ordered again through threats and bought by force went to Rome the next year. He was questioned by the pope.
Galileo was severely interrogated. Italo Mereu a historian, stated according to Italian Law that type of examination often included torture. Very little scholars disagree.In any case, Galileo was condemned to Austere Hall in 1633 by the Inquisition Court, he was later sent to house arrest due to his old age. He was guilty of “having held and believed false doctrine, contrary to the Hole and Divine Scriptures, that the Sun… does not move from east to west and that the Earth moves and is not the center of the world.”
Not wanting to become a martyr Galileo was forced to recant. After his sentence hearing, Galileo gravely announced: “I do abjure, curse, and detest the said errors and heresies [the Copernican theory] and in general all and any other error, heresy, or sect contrary to the Holy Church.”
Some say after admitting to this he stomped his foot and said: “And yet it does move.”
Claims were made that the shame of abandoning his beliefs tortured him until his death. Galileo became blind near his death causing him to live in isolation as he was sent to house arrest due to his age.
A lot of people believe that science and religion should not be mixed together hence Galileo’s example.
Thought the Pope at that time took the scriptures in the bible literally, that does not mean that the bible does not support the sun centered theory. Many believe that the notion that the bible does not support science is in fact untrue due to examples of the bible stating the earth was round. Another example in the on time if the Israelites God told the people the proper way to remove waste which reduced illness, this was later proved correct by science when people examined epidemics like the black plague.
This was like how Galileo saw he admitted this while writing to an apprentice that the bible should not be taken into literal sense at time, it is quite figuratively written.
This case was a compromise because Galileo had to live in isolation and fear to due to the people of his time not understanding the book they condemned Galileo for. Galileo also said that the book of life and the bible were written by the same person.
Due to the Pope’s action that caused people to believe less in the pope and more toward science. Because science uses facts and proof.
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