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When we talk about the origin of homosexuality then the 1st thing that hits is it remains one of the most debated in our society. And it is one of the major concerns that it is a result of an individual’s surrounding and environment or his biological genetic. Existence of these people is everywhere but their acceptance and approval in our cultural taboos are still negative. Among citizens it also has been viewed that they considered it as an abominable behavior and they thought it should be punishable by death or by some other extreme punishment. People considered that being homosexual is a sin and it should be illegal but why? Since I didn’t find that it’s causing any harm to anyone or to our ethics, cultures, religious etc. Time is changing so people shouldn’t come up with any kind of myth. Homosexual individuals are also human beings like others and they also have rights to enjoy their life by their choices. If we have a look on “what actually determines our sexual orientation?” then we’ll come to know that no research has conclusively established the causes of homosexuality, bisexuality or heterosexuality. There are some people who believe that orientation is predetermined genetically or hormonally. It is really not possible to convert heterosexuals to being homosexuals just as it is impossible to convert homosexuals to heterosexuals. In 1973 the American Psychiatric Associations said it should be removed from the list of mental illnesses. In 1974 the American Psychological Association did the same. And it seems like some better steps have taken towards the modernization. This research paper presents the views or reactions of social behavior towards the range of homosexuality.
Homosexuality, American Psychiatric Associations, cultural taboos, Myth, Punishment, sexual orientation, Abominable, Bisexuality, genetically, hormonally, Heterosexual, American Psychological Association.
In a simple word we may define “Homosexuality” as a sexual relationship between people of same sex. It has always been pre- existed but the acknowledgement of this reality is still seems very recent. It consists of lesbian and Gay but we can say that Bisexual and Transgender are also an another branch of it. When we bring them together then it is called LGBT. This word also means the increasing understanding between gender inequality and sexual orientation. (Brown, A. (2017, June 13) Minority of these people have always been existed in India either in invisibility or in silence. But matter is their issues have never articulated seriously. There is a law called Section 377 of IPC (Indian Penal Code) which was introduced in India and in Britain at the same time in 1860s and irony is that this section was removed from British but still remains in here. According to this law “whoever has carnal intercourse against the nature with anyone should be punished either for death or imprisonment for life.” ( Is it really the responses that back up forbidding deviance? It is really critical to know how deviance belief arises among people and get accepted in society. (Greenberg, D. F. (n.d.). The Construction of Homosexuality,1998)
Homosexuality is one of the most controversial talks in our society. In today’s world this issue is moot. It’s not a problem, or a bad thing, it is just different with unusual qualities of personality (same sex attraction). LGBT should be entitled to have equal rights like everyone else. In the fighting against inequality, tolerance will not do. There is a well said slogan of the Matthew .S Foundation: “ERASE HATE”
This literature review analyzes the rights of LGBT and sensitivity of public towards the visibility of LGBT as socially and legally constructed miscreants. In 1992 The World Health Organization (WHO) issues a statement that associating homosexuality with mental illness is a mistake. And in 1993 the commission des droits de la personne du Quebec (CDPQ) Organizes public hearings on discrimination and violence experienced by gays and lesbians in Quebec. The CDPQ submits a report to the National Assembly with 41 recommendations aimed at countering persistence discrimination against homosexual people.(WHO CDPQ; 1992, 1993). They faced a lot not only then but also now. Let’s go in a sequence way.
Although it might seem that construct of homosexual relations have always been measured by Jewish traditions, historical sources proves that this is far from the case. The Bible itself shows the evidence of homosexual practices during the first temple period that were not only allowed but also the part of religious rituals of the time. These relations were considered within the norm until the religious reform of King Josiah. (Allberry, S. 2018). Christianity and Islam also adopted the ban on homosexual relations, but in practice, although it was enforced by the church in Europe, in the Muslim world it was overlooked. With the end of British mandates and the establishment of the state of Israel, a provision banning so called unnatural sexual acts was made the law. But in 1953, the attorney general at the time instructed the office not to pursue criminal charges for violations of the law. And in 1957, the policy was ordered not to investigate suspicions of these violations. In 1975, the Aguda, the 1st organization in Israel devoted to promoting gay rights, was founded. In 1979, the 1st demonstration devoting to promoting gay rights was founded. In 1990s there was gradually improvement in Israeli society’s attitude toward homosexuality. Among the religious population, the change shows a difficult issue that has not yet found resolution. (Burton, N. (2015, September 18)
The 1st misconception that we need to clear is that being homosexual doesn’t mean you won’t have any children or pass on to genes. Evidence says that gaining reproductive could be provided to homosexuals through their off springs. Therefore we can say that it’s a kind of little support for hypothesis that it can be evolved by kin selection. So parents can control children’s reproductive decisions and also encourage homosexual behavior in children at a time. (William. K, BBC World Service, 18 February 2014)”This is a paradox from an evolutionary perspective,” says Paul Vasey from the University of Lethbridge in Canada. “I don’t understand how can characteristic like gay or u can say male homosexuality, although having a genetic component, to continue to exist over evolutionary time if the characteristics of that individuals shows that traits are not reproducing with the associated genes. Still research is going on and scientists are trying to find out the answers of this puzzle and there are several theories which says that It’s possible that different people have different mechanisms and working in various ways. (Ambrosino, B. (2017, March 16). Mainly theories were related to the research of male homosexuality. Since the research on female homosexuality or lesbians are still understudied. May be it will take research in a different forms or in a same way as gays. (Kremer, W. (2014, February 18).
Still there are many myths about homosexuality or sexual orientation in our society. Even the families also do believe in that people need to be adult so that they can know they are gay. Different people have different assumption. Some people think that teens might have decided to be gay if they have gay friends or if they are reading about homosexuality. And all these myths are really common and incorrect. But in today’s world adolescents have much sense to know about their sexual orientation. According to Family Acceptance Project (FAP) they were attracted to the same gender at the age of 10 and some of them knew about their sex at age 7 or 9. In the eyes of observer, it’s a beliefs that homosexual is an evil, sick, undesirable or punishable thing. Now the reconstruct of homosexuality is relevant. (Greenberg, D. F. (n.d.). The Construction of Homosexuality,1998).
Section 377 of Indian penal code (IPC) law which was introduced by Lord Macaulay brought at the time of British era in 1860. This law says that sexual intercourse with the same gender is a crime or it’s against the nature of law. (Brown, A. (2017, June 13)) Now re-opening of debate on homosexuality in India takes place. And the courts decided to have a look in their past visit of 2013 verdict which criminalizes gay sex. A bunch of judges including our chief justice of India, Dipak Mishra said they need to re-visit on their earlier decision because of the involvement of constitutional issues. He said that they were trying to think it properly so that it could send to a larger bench. This law involves punishment like death or imprisonment for life term. This is also implacable for heterosexuals, as consensual sexual acts of adults – oral and anal sexing private – are currently treated as unnatural and punishable under this law of IPC. In 2013 Supreme Court cancelled the order of high court for decriminalizing homosexuality by saying that it is the job of parliament to decide on scrapping laws. This decision of criminalizing section 377 is a major setback and also criticized human rights. (Press Trust of India, N. (2018, August 07)).
There are number of studies going on throughout the country. This study basically includes the problems faced by homosexuals in our society. It also deals with so many different cases that is recently going on all over the world. It also helps to understand the role played by society and government laws in their lives.
This study is mainly based on the secondary data. News, journals and different written documents have helped me a lot in analyzing and critically thinking on this issue related to homosexuality. Their problems in society and all those laws against them made me understand it in a better way.
According to Equaldex, there are 73 countries where homosexual activity is illegal. And only five countries in the world – Bolivia, Ecuador, Fiji, Malta and the UK – have constitutions that explicitly guarantee equality for citizens on the basis of sexual orientation as well as gender identity, according to a recent UCLA study.(Gray, 2018)
America has become one of those Country, who is accepting homosexuality and LGBT in general, and according to Gall Up Tracking Survey recent data shows there is an increase in acceptance of LGBT and homosexuality.
There is also a strong relationship between religious and homosexuality among people in different countries. Few exceptions are there like Russia receives low score on religious but high on homosexuality. Conversely Brazilians and Filipinos are more towards homosexuality rather than religious (Brown.A, 2017). On February 26, 2018- the pentagon confirms that the first time a transgender person has ready to signed a contract for joining US military, seems like a new change. (LIBRARY, C. (2018, April 01).
The group of people who attracted towards the same sex we considered them homosexual and the biggest problem is that they are still not accepted and approved by our society. I don’t understand why world regards them as abnormal or unnatural. Even bible also reflects about them that being homosexual is a sin. They are fighting for their rights of being equally treated like others just to prove that homosexuality is not a sin and they all are trying to demonstrate that there is nothing wrong with being a gay or a lesbians, instead, it’s just a different way of living their own life. A lots of study going on this and they shows that there are so many environmental factors affecting on their behavior like early experience of homosexuality, bad relationship with closed ones, having homosexual friends, qualities of being sissy and tom boy, unavailability of heterosexual partners, born in that way which includes homosexuality experience in high percentage, family abnormality etc. We need to change our thoughts towards them. I mean do you really think that it’s important to know what you are beneath your clothes or who is beneath your skin? Trust me I’ll choose the 2nd option. As long as love is there between two individuals, flesh shouldn’t barricade love. Stand for their rights. That’s all I have to say. We need to raise our mind from gutter, when it comes to choice of a life in general.
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