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Horticulture Production

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Table of contents

  1. Abstract
  2. Chapter One
  3. Introduction
  4. Background of the study
    Problem statement
    Justification of the study
    Objectives of the study
    Specific Objectives
  5. Chapter Two
  6. Literature Review
  7. Chapter Three Materials and Methods
  8. Confidentiality
    Permission from authorities
    Concealment
    Voluntary participation
  9. References:

Abstract

Fruits are very essential in human diet because of their great nutritional value as sources of vitamins and minerals. Therefore, they have generated increased marketing. However, in the developing world, per capita consumption of fruits, together with fruits, is only 100 g compared with 220 g in the developed countries (Idah, Ajisegiri and Yisa, 2007). The supply of basic food stuffs at prices within the reach of the average consumer is necessary so as to ensure and maintain food security (Onu and Iliyasu, 2008). This shall be a descriptive survey study intended to assess the analysis of profitability of fruits trade in Yankaba market, Kano metropolis, Nigeria. There have been little studies carried out to evaluate the analysis of the profitability of fruits trade in Yankaba market, Kano metropolis, Nigeria.

This view motivated a study to assess and make relevant recommendations to improve agricultural businesses of fruits at this particular market. This study thus seeks to carry out an investigation into these variables. The study hopes at the end to make inform and make recommendations to farmers on how to improve better on their business of fruit vending within the area. The main objective of the study is to analyze the profitability of fruits trade in Yankaba market Kano Nigeria. The population for the study will include small and large scale farmers at this particular market region named above. Both primary and secondary sources of data will be employed for this study. The purposive and accidental sampling procedures shall be used to select the respondents. The sample size will be 192 respondents. In this case a scientific calculator will be used in calculating the percentages and information be presented in contingency tables, graphs and pie charts.

Chapter One

Introduction

Background of the study

Population growth in the urban (4 per cent annual increase) and rural (1.9 per cent annual increase) areas of Sub-Saharan Africa is the highest in the world. It also has the highest rate of urbanization in the world (about 3.5 per cent per annum). This situation would mean increased demand for food and therefore increased need for marketing of agricultural food products (Andres and Lebailly, 2011). This is especially because majority of the efforts centered on increasing food production have not been impressive enough in achieving their objectives (Ihimodu, 2004).

In Nigeria, rapid population growth has brought about an increase in the demand for more food. Kano Metropolis, as a notable commercial centre, is one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in the country (Nabegu, 2008). In fact, Kano is the third largest commercial centre in Nigeria, after Lagos and Ibadan. Trading, consisting of wholesale and retail activities constitutes the second largest economic sector of the Kano economy. Although largely informal, the commerce sector accounts for approximately 65-75% of domestic trading activities. Marketing of agricultural produce is one of the dominant commercial activities, with wholesale of the produce undertaken in specialized markets within Kano Metropolis (Kano State Government, 2013).

There have been directions of studies on profitability of agricultural commodities. Some scholars have taken to analyse profitability of production. Example of these include small scale maize production in Niger state of Nigeria (Sadiq, Yakasai, Ahmad, Lapkene and Abubakar, 2013), gum arabic production in Jigawa State of Nigeria (Umar, Audu and Waizah, 2011), groundnut production in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State of Nigeria (Taru, Kyagya and Mshelia, 2010), small-scale catfish farming in Kaduna State of Nigeria (Issa, Abdulazeez, Kezi, Dari and Umar, 2014), cassava production in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria (Ebukiba, 2010), urban agriculture using metropolitan organic waste in Abuja, Nigeria (Arene and Mbata, 2008). Other researchers have concentrated on profitability of marketing of the products: rice processing and marketing in Kano State (Inuwa, Kyiogwom, Ala, Maikasuwa and Ibrahim, 2011), rice processing and marketing Ngoketunjia Division, North West Region, Cameroon (Bime, Fon, Ngalim and Ongla, 2014), paddy rice in Ebonyi North Zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Nwibo, Odo and Igberi, 2013), cattle marketing in Gombe, Nigeria (Mohammed, Mohammed and Adamu, 2013). This study analyses profitability of fruits marketing in Yanlemo specialized market of Kano Metropolis. This is to be achieved using two objectives. One, to establish the level of profit of fruits trade in the market. Two, to assess the profitability of marketing of fruits in the market.

Problem statement

Horticulture majorly fruit production and sale being the prime booster of Nigeria GDP and given its being practiced by most of the citizens in this country then this makes it an important issue to be looked upon. With the many challenges that arise from farming for both the small scale and large scale farmers in this country in a struggle to improve their horticultural produces. With little research done in relation to these variables and agri-businesses then it’s prudent enough for this study to be done thus this study saw the need to evaluate the profits that are being realized from the sale of horticultural products that are fruits in that particular market.

Justification of the study

In recent years, horticultural activities have raised up the GDP of a nation. This was one of most invested in and most tough department in the growth of Nigeria. The proportion of the farmers participating in horticulture of fruits are increasing nationwide and locally is high but the outcome is not what is expected. With this continuous underperformance of the farmers in their activities does not place the country in a good spot for economic development. This view motivated a study to assess the analysis of profitability of fruits trade in Yankaba market, Kano metropolis, Nigeria

Research questions

  1. What are the major constraints and opportunities of supply and production of fruits in Yankaba market Kano Nigeria?
  2. What are the impacts of the profits from the sale of fruits on sustainability of horticulture in Yankaba market Kano Nigeria?

Objectives of the study

The overall objective of the study was to analyze the profitability of fruits trade in Yankaba market Kano Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study include

Specific Objectives

  1. The find out the major constraints and opportunities of supply and production of fruits in Yankaba market Kano Nigeria.
  2. The impact of the profits from the sale of the fruits on sustainability of horticulture in Nigeria. Significance and Anticipated Output.

This study might generate important information useful to formulate fruit marketing development programs and guidelines for interventions that would improve efficiency of the fruits marketing system. The potential users of the results of this study would be farmers, traders, policy makers, governmental and non-governmental organization, who want to introduce interventions in fruit and marketing system. Furthermore, this study could be used as source material for further study. Limitations. ü Language barrier since most of the residents are local and don’t understand national languages that well. ü Large area for coverage since this is an agricultural town many of the roads are not well laid.

Theoretical Framework Dependent Variable independent Variable

Chapter Two

Literature Review

It is generally believed that small farm agriculture plays a central role in economic development, both in supplying a significant portion of the domestic food crop supplies and in generating income for low-income families. But on the other hand there are constraints related to access to production resources and markets (Minot, 1986). Markets may provide the incentives to profit maximizing participants to develop new technologies, products, resources of supply, new markets and methods of exploiting them.

The role of marketing in development process could be summarized as follows: the marketing system channels the net capital surplus out of agricultural sector which could be used to accentuate the development of industry, infrastructure and social service; it integrates the farming community in to the market economy through communication and exchange; the provision of secured market outlets which encourage producers to increase marketable surplus and diversify production; and marketing becomes Profit in economics refers to pure profit, i.e. any excess of revenues over all opportunity cost. In other words, it is a return in excess of all opportunity costs including those of capital. Profit is positive when there is an excess of revenues over costs while it is negative (commonly called losses) when revenues fall short of the costs (Lipsey, 2007). Therefore, profit refers to the difference between total gross income and how much it has cost to produce and market the product. Although any scale can be used to measure profit, it is more commonly measured using a monetary scale, as money is more easily compared across applications (Lutzs, 2010).

Profitability, derived from profit and ability, is the power of a business entity to earn profits or the ability of a given investment to earn a return from its use (Tulsian, 2014). According to Rahman, Adhikary and Yousuf (2014) profitability referred to the profit earning capacity of a product, plant, process or an undertaking. They equated the role of profit and profitability in business ‘blood’ and ‘pulse’ in human body. “Without adequate blood and ability to generate blood, it may not be possible on the part of human being to survive. Like this, without profit and ability to earn sufficient profit, it is difficult to survive on the part of any business”. It is one of the best techniques for measuring the productivity of capital employed and operational efficiency of an investment (Tulsian, 2014).

In Nigeria papaya is produced in home gardens and semi-commercial level by farmers as well as commercial level by state farms for home consumption and local market (for fresh fruit and juice making). The commercial farms of upper Awash agro industry (Tibila and Awara, Melka farms), horticulture development enterprise (Ziwai farm) etc. Many growers prefer papaya to other fruit crops due to its early fruit bearing nature and ease of production practices (Jackson, et al, 1985; and IAR, 1991). Papaya trees come in to bearing 9-14 months after planting, then bear year round. The ripe fresh fruit of papaya are eaten fresh throughout the tropics and are used in preparation of jam, soft drinks, ice-cream flavoring, and crystallized fruits and in syrup. The seeds are also used for their medicinal value. Unripe fruits and young leaves can be cooked and taken as fruits and spinach and the juice facilitate digestion and so that it is preferable for older people.

Horticulture production is profitable. Farmers involved in horticulture production usually earn much higher farm income as compared to cereal producers. Cultivation of fruits allows for productive employment where the labor/land ratio is high, since horticultural production is usually labor intensive. Increasing horticulture production contributes commercialization of the rural economy and creates many off-farm jobs. However, expanding the scale of horticulture production is often hindered by lack of market access, market information, and many biological factors (Weinberger and Lumpkin, 2005). Ideally, measures commonly recommended for the improvement of fruits marketing are better packaging, handling, and transport; sorting by quality; extending the market season and

Leveling out gluts and shortages by market delivery planning and storage; developing new markets; installation of refrigerated transport and processing equipment: and establishing marketing enterprises Bezabih and Hadera (2007) stated that production is seasonal and price is inversely related to supply. During the peak supply period, the prices decline. The situation is worsened by the perishability of the products and poor storage facilities. Along the market channel, 25 percent of the product is spoiled.

From these reviewed literatures severe production seasonality, seasonal price fluctuations, poor pre-and post-harvest handling, prevalence of pest and diseases, lack of storage are some of the critical problems encountered fruits production in Nigeria

Chapter Three
Materials and Methods

3.1 Research design.

The research design preferred for this exertion is the descriptive survey design. A descriptive research design asks who, what, where, how. It is premeditated to deliver supplementary insight into the research problem by describing the variables of interest and can be used for describing, defining, segmentation, estimating, predicting, and examining associative relationships. This brand of design is also baptized observational studies because using this approach observes the subjects without otherwise intervening (Monette, Sullivan & Dejong, 2002; Hopkins, 2000). In a descriptive study, no attempt is made to change behavior or conditions The method is also easy to explain and to understand.

3.2 Variables.

The independent variable in this study happens to be the market for the fruits whilst the dependent variables are sustainability of the market and the profits and market structure.

3.3 Location of the Study.

The study site will be Yankaba Kano market, which is located in Nigeria.

3.4 Study Population.

The study population will include any small scale and also large scale farmer living within Yankaba Kano market

3.5 Sampling technique.

Convenience sampling will be used to gather information from 192 farmers who are within the boundaries of within Yankaba Kano market. By picking convenience sampling whereby I only vision to deal with those that showed up at the market and were willing to partake the study. This kind of sampling also allows me to obtain basic data and trends regarding profitability of fruits within the region here named without a lot of complications from using a randomized sample. From this sampling method the researcher can also detect the relationship growth and development in relation to the loan offered.

3.6 Sample size determination.

Sample size for this study is determined using Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) formula for sample size determination. Sample size n= (Z2pq) d2 Where; Z = Standard normal deviate set at 95% confidence interval which is 1.96 P = Proportion estimated to have a characteristic similar to what is being investigated estimated at 50% which is 0.5) d = Statistical significance at 95% confidence level which is 0.05 = (1.962 x 0.5 x0.5) = 384 respondents. 0.052 Due to the language barrier limitations and poor infrastructure within the area then the researcher will move forward to use 50% of the sample population thus bringing the total respondents in this particular study to be 192 respondents achieved by dividing the initial number found by two. 384 respondents. 2 = 192 respondents

3.7 Construction and Research Instruments

Data will be collected using structured and unstructured questionnaires and interviews. They will be used as the main instruments to gather the data from the farmers from the market. The first section of the questionnaire for the farmers solicits information on what they know.

3.8 Pilot Study and Pre-Testing

The pre-test will be piloted prior to the actual data collection time to measure the appropriateness of the questionnaire with concerns to duration, language appropriateness, content, validity, and question comprehensibility. This will also test the competence and efficacy of the tools. Alterations will be made after the pretest.

3.9 Validity and reliability

Validity is used to determine whether research measures actually produce the data or qualitative results that they intend to measure and to approximate the truthfulness of the results (Colorado State University, 2012). I will submit a draft of the proposed interview questionnaire to the academic supervisor for feedback and advice on whether the questions could be considered valid for the intended study. Reliability is the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results. Inter-rater reliability will be used to see how the different farmers have opinions on the kilimo biashara loan.

3.1.1 Data analysis.

Data collected will be checked for completeness and data clearing conducted before leaving the area. A scientific calculator will be used in calculating the percentages and the information then presented in contingency tables graphs and pie charts in relation to objective of the study. Inferential analysis will be used because the researcher visions to use a smaller population of the farmers at convenience at the market to point out more information on profitability of fruits at the market about a larger population of farmers, by looking at the response of the few selected respondents.

3.1.2 Logistical and Ethical Considerations

Confidentiality

Information will be collected after informed consent is assured to the respondents. The study objectives will be clearly explained to the farmer and each of them assured that the information provided will be kept confidential. Information obtained from the subject during interviews will be highly discrete and handled with at most respect and confidentiality.

Permission from authorities

This proposal will be submitted to Kenyatta University School of agriculture for approval. Acquiescence will also be sought from the sub county administration offices before commencement of the research.

Concealment

The researcher will ensure that each participant’s identity is not revealed. During the course of the interviews, participants will not be asked to reveal their real names.

Voluntary participation

All participants will be given the chance to choose whether they want to participate in the study or not. Their consent will be received before any information is collected from them. They will be informed they have the right to withdraw from the study at any point without being victimized in any way.

References:

  1. An, N. T. H. (2012). Profitability and Technical Efficiency of Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus Monodon) Culture and White Leg Shrimp (Penaeus Vannamei) Culture in Song Cau District, Phu Yen Province, Vietnam. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis in Fisheries and Aquaculture Management and Economics FSK-3911 (30 ECTS), The Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso, Norway & Nha Trang University, Vietnam.
  2. Andres, L., & Lebailly, P. (2011). Peri-urban Agriculture: The Case of Market Gardening in Niamey, Niger. African Review of Economics and Finance, 3(1), 69-85.
  3. Arene, C. J., & Mbata, G. I. O. (2008). Determinants of Profitability and Willingness to Pay for Metropolitan Waste-Use in Urban Agriculture of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension, 7(1), 41-46.
  4. Bime, M. J, Fon, D. E, Ngalim, S. B, and Ongla, J. (2014). Profitability and Efficiency Analyses of Small Scale Rice processing units in Ngoketunjia Division, North West Region, Cameroon. Journal of Advances in Agriculture, 3(2).
  5. Ebukiba, E. (2010). Economic Analysis of Cassava Production (Farming) in Akwa Ibom State. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(4), 612-614.
  6. Falola, J. A. (2002). Kano. In Mabogunje, A. L. (Ed.). Africa Atlases: Nigeria. Abuja: Federal Republic of Nigeria.
  7. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2009). Official Gazette No. 2, Vol. 96. Abuja: Federal Government Printer.
  8. Idah, P.A., Ajisegiri, E.S.A., & Yisa, M.G. (2007). Fruits and Vegetables Handling an d Transportation in Nigeria. AU J.T. 10(3), 175-183.
  9. Ihimodu, I. I. (2004). Marketing of Agricultural Products and the Food Security Programme in Nigeria. Paper Presented at the 13th Annual Congress of the Nigeria Rural Sociological Association at LAUTECH, Ogbomosho, Nigeria. Nov 25-28, 2003.
  10. Inuwa, I. M. S., Kyiogwom, U. B. Ala, A. L. Maikasuwa, M. A., & Ibrahim, N. D. (2011). Profitability Analysis of Rice Processing and Marketing in Kano State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 19(2), 293-298.
  11. Issa, F. O., Abdulazeez, M. O., Kezi, D. M., Dari, J. S., & Umar, R. (2014). Profitability analysis of Small-scale Catfish in Kaduna State. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 6(8), 267-273.
  12. Kano State Government (2013). Kano State Investors’ Handbook [13] Lipsey, R. G. (2007). An Introduction to Positive Economics. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  13. Lutz, H. G. (2010). Farmers’ Organization’s Guide to Profitability Analysis for Small Scale Farming in Southern Africa. Southern Africa: Swedish Cooperative Centre Regional Office for Southern Africa (SCC ROSA).
  14. Mohammed, S., Mohammed, I., & Adamu, I. (2013). Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Profitability of Cattle Marketing in Gombe Metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 2(12), 288-292.

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