close
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

The Effect of Emotions on The Cognitive Process of an Individual

downloadDownload printPrint

Remember! This is just a sample.

You can get your custom paper by one of our expert writers.

Get custom essay

121 writers online

blank-ico

One theory of how emotion affects the cognitive process of memory is flashbulb memory. It is a theory that was suggested by Brown and Kulik (1977). Flashbulb memories are emotional memories that are both vivid and detailed that are formed after a highly emotional event. These memories are recorded in the brain like a picture, hence the name. Flashbulb memory theory has features that make it unique to other memories. They are more vivid, accurate, consistent, last longer and are easier to remember. This is different from normal memories that tend to be selective, unreliable and are easily changed/distorted.

Some events stand out in the memory more than others. When events occur, the person experiences a high emotional state, whether it be extreme happiness or extreme sadness. It is this high emotional state that causes the event to become imprinted in the memory. Events can either be personal or something that affects the world. An example of this would be the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963 or the death of Princess Diana in 1997.

Flashbulb Memory was first demonstrated by Brown and Kulik in a study that they conducted in 1977. The aim of their study was to investigate flashbulb memories and to determine how it works. There were 80 American participants that were used in the experiment. Half of them were African Americans and the other half were Caucasian Americans. The participants were given 10 questions to answer about different events. Out of the 10 events, 9 of them were assassinations (or attempts) of well-known American public figures. The last event was one was a personal event that each of the participants chose. This even had to have involve “self-shock.” The participants were then asked how much they went over these events, either overtly (discussing with other people) or covertly (thinking about it privately).

The findings showed that 90% of the participants were able to recall what happened with regards to J.F. Kennedy’s assassination in 1963. African Americans recalled more flashbulb memory of assassinations of civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King more than the Caucasian Americans did. For the tenth event, the one which was self-selected, the majority of the participants recalled shocking events such as the death of a parent.

This study supported Brown and Kulik’s (1977) theories of flashbulb memory. It showed that they were formed in situations in which we receive surprising and highly emotional information. Flashbulb memory are maintained by both overt (discussing memory with others) and covert (private) rehearsal. A specialized neural mechanism is involved in the creation of flashbulb memories. This neural mechanism stores information permanently in a unique memory system.

One strength of flashbulb memory theory is that most of the studies involve real life events (it’s naturalistic) and people’s reactions and memories concerning them. This means that the ecological validity of these studies are high. One weakness of this theory is that these studies are not as reliable because they can’t be duplicated. It is therefore impossible to see if the results are consistent. Flashbulb memories can also be affected by emotions because memory is either enhanced or repressed through rehearsal.

Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

experts 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help you just now

delivery Starting from 3 hours delivery

Find Free Essays

We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

The Effect Of Emotions On The Cognitive Process Of An Individual. (2019, April 10). GradesFixer. Retrieved February 9, 2023, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/how-do-emotions-affect-the-cognitive-process-of-an-individual/
“The Effect Of Emotions On The Cognitive Process Of An Individual.” GradesFixer, 10 Apr. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/how-do-emotions-affect-the-cognitive-process-of-an-individual/
The Effect Of Emotions On The Cognitive Process Of An Individual. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/how-do-emotions-affect-the-cognitive-process-of-an-individual/> [Accessed 9 Feb. 2023].
The Effect Of Emotions On The Cognitive Process Of An Individual [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Apr 10 [cited 2023 Feb 9]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/how-do-emotions-affect-the-cognitive-process-of-an-individual/
copy to clipboard
close

Where do you want us to send this sample?

    By clicking “Continue”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.

    close

    Be careful. This essay is not unique

    This essay was donated by a student and is likely to have been used and submitted before

    Download this Sample

    Free samples may contain mistakes and not unique parts

    close

    Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.

    close

    Thanks!

    Please check your inbox.

    We can write you a custom essay that will follow your exact instructions and meet the deadlines. Let's fix your grades together!

    boy

    Hi there!

    Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

    Check it out!
    Don't use plagiarized sources. Get your custom essay. Get custom paper
    exit-popup-close

    We can help you get a better grade and deliver your task on time!

    • Instructions Followed To The Letter
    • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
    • Unique And Plagiarism Free
    Order your paper now