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In recent years, industrial internet of things (Industrial IoT) has become the most popular industrial technical paradigms and business concepts. With the continuous integration of emerging information and communication technologies (ICT), the industry is envisaged to experience a revolution in its way of operating toward autonomous (Meng Z. et al, 2017). The envisioned industrial systems can potentially empower collaborative Practices, which promises greater production flexibility and product variability with minimized human interventions. As an example, new services such as real-time event processing or 24/7 access to tracking information will be introduced into the supply chain (Sanchez-Iborra, R. Cano, M. 2016). Having a thorough monitoring system deployed all along the manufacturing and supply chain allows enriching the complete value chain with precious information, minimizing losses against unexpected events, and hence improving both business processes and the information exchange among stakeholders (Business-to-Business (B2B) networks) (Stock, T. Seliger, G. 2016). Industrial IoT, incorporates machine learning and big data technology, harnessing the sensor data machine-2-machine (M2M) communication and automation technologies that have existed in industrial settings for years. What’s changing is that the Industrial IoT concept is driving the automation industry to ensure greater interoperability of its products. And that means it’s time to find standards to apply to these technologies and their applications.
Analyzing Industrial IoT through modelling is to be regarded as the best way of the study for better understanding of the challenges imposed by such systems. As modelling of the Industrial IoT is related to a wide context, we categorize the related work into the following categories from i to iv i. Research trends in Industrial IoT Gubbi et al. present a cloud-centric vision to implement the Industrial IoT worldwide. They discuss the core technologies and application areas that can define the IoT research direction in the future. While Jara et al. consider the challenges and opportunities in extending the public IPv4 address space for the Internet of Everything through IPv6 to support the IoT capabilities. Sallai, G. first summarizes the challenges of the Current Internet and draws up the visions and recent capabilities of the Future Internet and then, Sallai, G. identifies the clusters of the relevant research topics defining them as the chapters of Future Internet research activities in a layered model. It includes basic research on the Internet Science, the Internet Engineering up to the Future Internet applications and experiments. While Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide a virtual layer in which the data about the physical world can be retrieved by any computing system. Alcaraz et al. emphasize that WSNs are an invaluable resource for realizing the vision of the IoT in terms of integration, security and other issues. The collection, modelling, reasoning and distribution of context with respect to sensor data as well as context aware computing play a critical role in the IoT applications.
Babar et al. provide analysis of IoT in the context of security, privacy and confidentiality issues and propose the Security Model for the IoT (Babar et al. make analyses of the Internet of Things with regard to security, privacy and confidentiality and propose the security model for the Internet of Things.). Weber considers new security and privacy challenges from the international legislation that is pertaining to the right to information, provisions prohibiting or otherwise limiting the use rules on IT security legislation, supporting the use mechanisms of the IoT(Weber considers new security and data protection challenges arising from international law in relation to the right to information, provisions prohibiting or otherwise restricting the application of IT security law rules, in support of IoT usage mechanisms.). Skarmeta et al. propose a distributed capability-based access control mechanism. The latter is based on public key cryptography in order to cope with some security and privacy challenges in the IoT. Their solution uses the optimized Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm inside the smart object. Slavin et al. introduce the security requirement patterns that represent reusable security practices that software engineers can apply to improve security in their systems.
The paper proposes a new method that combines an inquiry cycle-based approach with the feature diagram notation to review only relevant patterns and quickly select the most appropriate patterns for the situation(1 Skarmeta et al. propose a distributed, capacity-based access control mechanism. The latter is based on public key cryptography to address certain security and privacy issues on the Internet of Things. Your solution uses the optimized digital signature algorithm of the elliptical curve in the Smart object. Slavin et al. provide templates of security requirements that represent reusable security practices that software engineers can apply to improve the security of their systems. The paper proposes a new method that combines a review cycle approach with scoring of the characteristics diagram to examine only those models that are relevant and quickly select the most appropriate ones for the situation.)(2 Skarmeta et al. propose a distributed and capacity-based access control mechanism.
It relies on public key encryption to address certain security and privacy issues on the Internet of Things. Your solution uses the optimized digital signature algorithm of the elliptical curve in the Smart object. Slavin et al. provide models of security requirements that represent reusable safety practices that software engineers can apply to improve the security of their systems. The document proposes a new method that combines a review cycle approach with the characteristic diagram notation to examine only the relevant models and quickly select those that are best suited to the situation.) . Heer et al. discuss the problems and application possibilities of the known Internet protocols and security solutions in the IoT. The authors also describe the deployment model and the core security requirements and emphasize the technical restrictions being specific to the standard IP security protocols. (Heer et al. discuss problems and possibilities to apply known Internet protocols and security solutions in IdOT. The authors also describe the implementation model and basic security requirements and focus on the technical limitations of standard IP security protocols.)
Security and privacy Energy issues within IoT Energy consumption (EC) is the key problem in IoT. Zhou et al. describe the energy models (EMs) of the WSN node core parts, such as processors, radio frequency modules and sensors. The basis of EM is the event trigger mechanism. The authors first simulate the node components and then estimate the EC of network protocols using this EM. The model presented here is suitable for WSN EC analysis, for evaluation of network protocols and for WSN application development. Schmidt et al. describes a method to construct models for sensor nodes based on few simple measurements. They provide a sample where models are integrated in a simulation environment within the proposed runtime framework to support the model-driven design process.
Measurements show that the proposed model enables to significantly reduce EC. Lanzisera et al. propose a ‘communicating power supply’ (CPS) to enable the communication of energy and control information between the device and a building management system.. Friedman and Krivolapov describe a study that deals with a combined effect of power and throughput performance of the Bluetooth and Wi-Fi usage in smart phones.
The study discloses some interesting effects and trade-offs. In particular, the paper identifies many situations in which Wi-Fi is superior to Bluetooth, countering previous reports. The study also identifies a couple of scenarios that are better handled by Bluetooth. The conclusions from this study give the preferred usage patterns that might be interesting to researchers and smart phone developers. Venckauskas et al. present the configurable IoT prototype unit that enables to perform various experiments in order to determine the relationship between energy and security in various modes of the IoT unit. The paper also presents a methodology of measuring the energy of the IoT unit. While applying, the methodology provides results in two different modes: ideal (without effect of noises within a communication environment where the IoT unit works) and real (with effect of noises). ( Energy consumption (EC) is a major problem for IoT. Zhou et al. a description of the energy models (EMs) of the central parts of the WSN node such as processors, radio frequency modules and sensors. EM is based on an event activation mechanism. The authors first simulate the node components and then evaluate the EC network protocol using this EM. The model presented here is suitable for the EC WSN analysis, network protocol evaluation and WSN application development.
Schmidt et al. describes the method of constructing sensor node models based on a few simple measurements. They form a sample in which the models are integrated into a simulation environment within the proposed runtime framework to support model-based design. Measurements show that the proposed model allows a significant reduction of EC. Lanzisera et al. offer a “Communication Power Supply” (CPS) to enable power and control information communication between the device and the building management system…. Friedman and Krivolapov describe a study that deals with the combined energy and bandwidth effect of the usage of Bluetooth and Wi-Fi connection in smartphones. The study reveals some interesting effects and compromises.
In particular, they identified many situations where Wi-Fi is a better solution than Bluetooth, which contrasts with previous reports. The study also identified several scenarios that are better managed by Bluetooth. The conclusions of this study provide information on preferred usage patterns that may be of interest to scientists, researchers and smartphone developers. Venckauskas et al. present a configurable prototype of the IoT, which allows for various experiments to be carried out to determine the relationship between energy and safety in different IoT modes. The paper also presents the methodology of energy measurement in the IoT unit. The methodology provides results in two ways: ideal (without the influence of noise in the communication environment in which IoT operates) and real (with the influence of noise)
Shaoshuai et al. propose the multi-objective decision-making using the evaluation model of service quality. This model takes into consideration both the state of the system and the user settings to improve the model of the QoS validity. The calculated assessment of the proposed model can be used as a parameter for estimation and selection of service. Jin et al. present various architectures of IoT for smart city applications and determine their required network QoS. As QoS is one of the major networking challenges, the topic is at the focus in both wired and wireless networks. In WSNs, many researches pursue problems related to radio interfaces and radio noise interference. Fok et al. state that, in order to meet the individual needs of many systems, users require multi-dimensional QoS.
In this respect, the authors present a simple abstraction mechanism, which consists of QoS functions of each application. This function combines various aspects of QoS for each user to a single value, which is used to define the best method of interaction. Liang et al. address the discontinuous reception/transmission (DRX/DTX) optimization, by asking how to maximize the sleep periods of devices while guaranteeing their QoS, especially on the aspects of traffic bit rate, packet delay and packet loss rate in the IoT applications. There are proposed efficient schemes to optimize DRX/DTX parameters and schedule devices’ packets with the base station. The main idea of the presented scheme is the balance between the QoS parameters and DRX/DTX configurations. Simulation results show that schemes can guarantee traffic bit rate, packet delay and packet loss rate while saving energy of user equipment.
Shaoshuai et al. provides decision making through a model for evaluating service quality. This template takes into account both the system status and the user settings to improve the QoS validity model. The calculated evaluation of the proposed model can be used as a parameter for evaluating and selecting the service. Jin et al. introduces different IoT architectures for intelligent urban applications and defines your desired QoS network. Since QoS is one of the biggest network challenges, this topic focuses on wired and wireless networks. Several studies within the framework of the WSM deal with radio interface and interference problems.
Seal et al. claim that users need a multidimensional QoS to meet the individual needs of several systems. In this sense, the authors present a simple abstraction mechanism consisting of the QoS function of each application. This function combines different aspects of QoS for each user in a value that is used to define the best method of interaction. Liang et al. aims at discontinuous reception/transmission optimization (DRX/DTX) and asks how to maximize device downtime while ensuring QoS for devices, especially in terms of bit rate, packet delay and packet loss rate for IoT applications. Pproposed efficient schemes are provided to optimize the DRX/DTX parameters and the device packages programmed with a base station. The basic idea of the schema is a well-balanced relationship between QoS parameters and DRX/DTX configurations. Simulation results show that schemes can guarantee traffic bit rate, packet delay and packet loss rate while saving energy for the user’s devices.
The aim of this project is to provide a study of wireless protocols for industrial IoT focusing on performance, security and power efficiency targeting to identifying the abstract security–energy relationships for the variety of wireless communication protocols to provide the energy performance measurements (using the created environment and the IoT unit) in order to test the feature models and to obtain the concrete characteristics of the relationships.
The project will focus on analysing wireless protocols for industrial IoT focusing on performance, security and power efficiency. In addition to the typical tasks of conducting a literature review and thesis writing, we also envisage the following research tasks (RT) in this project. RQ1: What are the wireless protocol with enhance performance, security and power efficiency? Research efforts will focus on understanding and utilising the relationship and dependencies between the performance, security and power efficiency. RQ2: Experimentation/simulation to test and validate the different wireless protocol.
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