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Research is required to improve the conditions. Prepared for any research is likely to help society directly or indirectly. Before beginning collecting the data, the researchers need to inform and obtain consent first to the participants.
The meaning of informed consent is an essential part of the researchers to get to the participants before doing the research. Informed consent implies that participants are aware of the type of information you want from them, why the information is being sought, what the purpose it will be carried out, how they are expected to participate in the study and how it directly effects to them. It is important things to get consent voluntary and without any pressure on the participants.
Information elements of the consents are participants must be fully noted. The subject should be confidential and anonymous. The informed consent form must be written in lay language to make participants easy to understand the research. The researcher must give time to answer questions at any time the participants available.
The elements in the consent must be voluntary without any pressure. Participants also must be free to withdraw consent at any time they want.
The consent form must contain explanation the aim of the research project, the ways how the study will be conducted the study, the harm and risk, the value and the beneficial, privately, refusal from the study, harsh statement, consent form, and the last thing must be signed by participants.
A human subject is defined as a living person about who will investigator conducting research get the information. This includes studying of humans through surveys or interviews, psychological, physiological or medical testing or treatment, observation, access to their personal document or other materials such as the collection and use of their body organs, tissues or fluids. Access to their details is personally identifiable confidential information form as a part of an existing published source or database.
An issue relating to this is the risk of the research to the participants. A risk can cause harm, discomfort or inconvenience.
The list of harm is not exhaustive but may include physical harm such as injury, illness, and pain. The psychological harm which is feelings of worthlessness, distress, guilt, anger or fear. For example, to disclosure of sensitive or embarrassing information, or learning about the genetic possibility of developing an untreatable disease. The devaluation of personal worth such as being humiliated, manipulated or treated disrespectfully or unjustly. Social harm including the damage to social networks or relationships with others discrimination in access to benefits, services, employment or insurance, social stigmatization, and findings of previous unknown paternity status. Economic harm including the imposition of direct or indirect costs on participants. Legal harm: including the discovery and prosecution of criminal conduct.
Discomfort is less serious than harm and can involve body physical and mental. Examples of minor side-effects of medication, discomforts related to venepuncture, anxiety induced by an interview. Where a person’s reactions exceed discomfort and become distressed, they should be viewed as harm.
Less serious than discomfort is an inconvenience. Examples of inconvenience may include having to travel to participate in the research, filling in a form, participating in a survey, or giving up a time to participate in research. Research may also pose risks to non-participants and these may include the risk of distress for a participant’s family members identified with a serious genetic disorder, the possible effects of a biography on family or friends, or infectious disease risks to the community.
The major ethical principles that guide researchers in their works, respect the persons as human dignity, beneficence, and justice.
Respect for persons. The principle of respect for humanity as an individual involves acknowledging the existence of a human being has to merit in himself or herself. Researchers must equally regard the honor of those are involving in research. The moral requirement is based on the acceptance of the participant’s autonomy and protecting those with subside autonomy. It is the responsibility of the researcher to get informed consent from study participants and to maintain privacy on their behalf. From the beginning till the end of the research process to the capacity of human beings to make their own decision (voluntariness). When the participants are unable to make their own decisions or have lack of ability to do so, respect for them by empowering them when possible and providing for their protection as necessary. Researchers should respect the privacy, confidentiality and cultural sensitivities of participants and what the relevant things, of their communities. Any specific agreement made with the participants or the community should be fulfilled.
The principle of beneficence is between the potential benefit and harm of participation. The likely benefit of the research must justify any risks of harm or discomfort to participants or the wider community. Researchers have an obligation to maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harm. Researchers are responsible for designing the research to minimize the risks of harm or discomfort to participants, clarifying to participants the potential benefits and risk, and the welfare of the participants in the research. Where there is no likely benefit to participants, the risk to participants should be lower than would be ethically acceptable where there are such likely benefits.
The principle of justice involves regard for human similarity that each person share with others, that means should treat equally. It means a fair distribution of the burdens and benefits of research and encompasses fair treatment in the recruitment of participants and in the review of research. Researchers must ensure that the vulnerable are not exploited and that eligible candidates who may benefit from participation are not excluded without good cause.
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