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Firstly it is crucial to give a brief introduction to the interviewees, Teacher X1 is a teachers in charge of blind and deaf and has an experience in teaching special needs children. Teachers X2 is teacher who teach in HVP Gatara Ndera with more than 2years of experience in this job of teaching children with disability. Teacher X3 has much training and has participate in different training regarding special need education. Student Y1 is a blind student who is in P5 and student Y2 is a student with leg impairment in P4.
By considering the matter of special needs of learners with impairment, the gathered information showed that learners with impairment have to be encouraged and helped to easily access all facilities that are provided, in addition the research showed that school book do not facilitate those students in learning according to teacher X1 the syllabus should be modified to help those student to learn collectedly as others and those available are still few compare to number of students available, teacher X1 added that those students need both teachers and parents motivation to fight the problems of coming to school. While Teachers X2 and X3 said that in order to fully involve in education of children with impairment the ministry in charge of education needs to increase the number of teaching materials and revision of student syllabus to reflect the system to education students with disability.
Student Y1 said that the materials that they use in reading are not enough and even teachers due to lack of training they sometimes teach blind as others students they sometimes forget that we don’t see. however teacher try their best by treating us correctly as their child advising us to be confidents they even take huge part than our parents in our developments.
According to student Y2 even though they are badly treated by the society teachers help them overcome those harassment teaching them to be confident and added that if it were not the teachers some of our colleague should have been left the classes.
How do these teachers describe challenges they face in providing special education for children with disabilities in their working place?
Not only the teachers, schools are meet with the challenges in education of learners with disability but also the government, counterfeit with many challenges for example according to teacher X1 said that students are not concreted in classes they are not comfortable due to put design of the classroom with cause the external annoyement when read reading, others are not able to step up the stairs while entering in the classroom.
Teacher X2 said that it is difficult to manage students with low concentration, poor confident that comes from community treatment, in addition many teachers who are teaching special needs students are regular teachers and need enough training to have much skills to handle students with disability. Teacher X3 said that it is true the challenges are too many some student have mental retardation which means need more skills to manage them for their ages to not meet with their learning level so trainings to teachers are highly needed, also materials are not readily available.
Analyzing the given information of both student and teachers the studying areas , like school disposition and design, playing grounds and others social schemes take an important part in learning of students with impairment, the design of physical infrastructures like chairs , accessible classes and other buildings, transportation facilities, learning materials are needed to overcome the mentioned challenges. Also the teachers highlight the poor teaching materials and financial constraints as challenges.
Are those challenges difficult to overcome? Tell me a typical challenging situation?
The interviewees said that they meet diversity of challenges when teaching learners with disability, some difficulties are hard to manage teachers X1 shared an experience of the challenge met in teaching saying that some students with mental disability tend to engage into fight and it is sometimes difficult to stop some are very eager and very angry due external treatment which made them to be cruel and society fighters, other are engaged in sexual activities.
According to teacher X2 and X3 they present challenges that some learners escape classes and go outside school while they are not able to explain themselves and went in the area sometimes they do not know, and it is a great tasks for teachers to look forward to those students and teachers are responsible for them means that whatever happen to them teachers are responsible.
Teachers X2 said that some students do not even know how toileting and do this everywhere they want, some went sick but they cannot communicate and it is for teachers to guess and know is going on with the child.
Teachers X3 added that challenges are presented every day of their work for example some learners may have more than one kind of disability however child’s parent sometimes do not know about this case it is for teacher to discover this matter of question.
What do you do to resolve those challenges?
Accord to Teacher X1 overcoming these challenges need more trained and skilled teachers as the teachers of regular students, also the students with especial needs have to be followed regularly unfortunately the ratio of teacher to student is still low where one teacher can follow six students which is not fair. This is due to less number of teachers and few classes. Teacher X2 had a different understand instead the development of positive understanding to learners with impairment and teaching the community to their role and responsibilities to those students with disability is a great pillar in overcoming many challenges that are observed in teaching children with disability.
Teacher X3 agreed with both by emphasizing their opinion and added that the government need to review the curriculum of learners with disability.
Looking on the answers to the asked questions having the skilled and trained teachers will enable the education of children with disability to develop however this is not enough, some teachers found to teach students of different disability in same classes it is a challenge to fight for especially for government entity in charge of especial need education. Also renewing the design principles of social and public infrastructures. In addition parents need to take part in education of their students teachers are not enough to take care of those children, the government need to sensitize in the society that children with disabilities are as the others and need to be respected, by rising their autonomy, confidents that they are able to perform the tasks themselves.
Teacher X1 says that as the ministry has started by introducing as department of special needs education in university of Rwanda those university student have to be trained correctly and perform enough practice to meet with those children, therefore introduce the school of inclusive and special needs education is a pillar toward the success of learning of students with disabilities however more effort are still needed.
Teacher X2 and X3 had the same understanding but added that also the current teachers have to be trained, in addition ministry of education need to provide efficient and effective materials like braille and wheel chairs the schools also increase the number of schools fro in some many rural area there many children with disability who are struggling, they cannot get school to stud in, so more schools are needed to overcome this situation.
Which support do you need to effectively involve in learning of students with disability?
Teacher X1 suggested that teachers need staff motivation in order to change their attitudes toward the students they taught, special needs education teachers need special salary which will upgrade the motivation in their daily duties of following the children with disabilities with their whole heart. Teacher X2 emphasizing the suggestion of teacher X1 added that teachers alone are not enough there should be the parents and community supports. Teachers X3 saw things in other perspectives where ministry in charge of education have renew the school infrastructures for teachers need to access the full attention of student the outside disturbance hind the connection of teach with students so for teachers to fully involve in development of student with disability, adequate teaching materials , adequate infrastructures are needed.
The government have to settle an effective and understandable program to ensure the parents and teachers participate in the development of students with disability, training should be improved, and the supplier of necessary materials. Teachers need motivation to help them and encourage them to work harder.in addition follow up of education system of children with impairment will support in having proper information of the step made, children with disability need to be treated equally as other children in other to achieve successful education of children with disability
The action of analyzing was based on the interview answers relatively to the reviewed literature, in many countries even the developed ones children with disability are maltreated in society, therefore teachers needs to help them to be confidents and rise they self-autonomy in community even though teachers need to be involved the development of those students a different number of challenges have been presented by the respondents throughout the interview conducted. Briefly those challenges are summarized below.
Most of the interviewees point on the materials to use when teaching children with disabilities saying that those material are not sufficient and some are very traditional, the research showed that this is associated with financial problem and insufficient budget given to the special education program. By comparing with regular schools they have adequate materials compare to special needs classes. That why the respondents suggest to the government entity in charge of education to improve the materials used in special needs schools and rise the budget of these schools.
The study showed that at least one teacher follow minimum of six students this numbers is every large compare to the needs of one student. This is due to less number of special needs teachers even some of the teachers did not follow special education but only small and insufficient trainings. Here in Rwanda only one university has a school of special need education program this cannot provide enough teachers. The quality of some current teachers are hesitated for many of them are those regular teachers took short training engage themselves in especial needs teaching. That why the respondents propose the governments to increase trainings in specials needs teachers and increasing of schools of special needs education.
Other factor presented is insufficient classrooms and poor learning area, some of class are poorly constructed with no ceiling boards, poor desk design. Some school still have stair which do not allow children with disability to step up or hind the access of wheel chairs
During these research it have found that some people deny learners with disability some are harassed in their families and rejected by their parents, these affects the effectiveness of learning with disability, even make harder for the teacher to fully involve in the development of students with disability. Hence sensitizing and protecting the rights of those children is needed in all government institutions.
Special needs teachers claim to do the most difficult job in teaching, they need extra patient in teaching student with disability for there are children who are more difficult to handle which teach have to do. So motivation is important and enough salary, they all put this blame to government.
In short words the research showed that teachers have to fully involve in the learning of children with disability how by conducting interview the teachers themselves presented the numerous numbers of challenges that they cross when teaching students with disability many of those challenges are a society with lack of trainings, poor infrastructures, in adequate teaching facilities like teaching materials for examples braille. Also the outside community maltreated the children with disability and some loose the confidence in society which make difficult to teachers to teach them for even some neglect themselves due society harassments. Lastly teachers claim to get poor salary compare to the tasks they have to perform and this lead to poor motivation hence bad results in teaching those students so the government entity in charge need to look on this issue.
Though this research it has found that teachers of special needs education schools undergo diversity of challenges some due students who are difficult to manage, others due to communities and parents who do not take part in education of those students and others from government entity in charge of special needs education who do not take into consideration of some factors like schools and materials in particularity of specials needs children. Therefore according to teachers as expressed in this research proper class design, modern teaching materials, more training, rising of many specials needs schools for rural areas, motivations and preparation of special needs education teachers are needed.
Many teachers feel unconfident in teaching the children with disability for they are not well trained or attained a university program for special needs education and that why they needs more trainings to rise up their skills and confidence.
Most of the special needs teachers serve high number of students which barrier them to make proper follow up of everyone, these students needs high attention in teaching that is why there are in special education program, teach have to accommodate less number of student in order to know the progression of each child.
After analyzing the results from this research it has found that qualified teachers are needed to involve in the development of learners with impairment however many challenges have been found and for wellbeing of teachers together with children with disability overcoming those challenges is necessary below are the out coming recommendations
For the teachers have a meaningful impacts on development of students with disability trainings are important. The government authority in charges should search for the professional in special needs education to train teachers. By giving them the standard guidelines to the management of children with disability.
Teaching materials take a great role in education of learners with disability so the government entity in charge of curriculum development and evaluation have to provide sufficient materials for specials needs , enough resources and teaching facilities
Only one school of special needs education is presented in in University this will still lead to low number of qualified teachers so the government can look on how to increase the number of school with special needs education program for more the available teachers are those attended the short courses and come up with low knowledge and skills.
This is not the end of research there is many issues that need to be investigated to clearly help the children with disability to develop ,further research should include how community should intervene in the education of children with disability by taking them as others children, and this research should involve both teachers, officials and both private and public sectors. The quantitative research will be necessary to get the real numbers of children who are following the special needs education and those who are not able to follow the program and identify the potential reasons.
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