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A Phobia is basically an illogical fear for any situation, object, or class of objects. In years a phobia commonly seen in the west is Islamophobia. A specific type of fear, prejudice, hatred, stereotypes against muslims and islam resulting in biased discrimination and suppressing muslims. Causes of Islamophobia in West Muslims practicing islam in Europe have different lifestyle from them. This muslim community can be recognized easily even from their getup. Muslim women wearing hijab, veil or doing any other traditional clothing, muslim men growing beards, wearing muslim caps on heads and going to mosques gives a visible difference as they are also asking for halal food and refusing clubs and brothels. Muslims are being perceived as a violent class in west because of many incidents happened in past.
Many controversies and fatwas plays a vital role in making image of muslims as extremist class. (Husain, 2014) Fatwas on Salman Rushdie for his Midnight’s Children and Satanic Verses as blasphemy against Islam made west think muslims as intolerant fanatics. (The Satanic Verses controversy) Danish cartoon controversy made west believe that muslims are humorless religious fanatics. Cartoons of Jesus were also drawn by Kurt Westergaard but no such protests were seen by Christians. (Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy) Reason of islamophobia is not only jihadist but many other social issues as many crimes are committed by muslims there. Illegal immigrants have majority of muslims involved. High birth rates, anti-social behavior, poor education and conservative cultural values are also causing English to go against muslims. (Rajaka)
Western media is also playing a role in promoting hatred against muslims. Why is every terrorist called MUSLIM TERRORIST or ISLAMIC MILITANT. Their claim of fighting for sake of islam is fallacious. An individual extremist is always associated with whole muslim community and this is done only in case of islam. (Munir, 2016). Britain media has also played well role in promoting islamophobia in Britain. A newspaper’s significantly misleading headline “UK mosques fundraising for terror”. The paper later clarified its wrong statement by noting “UK mosques were not involved in any way” when IPSO(Independent Press Standard Organization) judged it. A number of cases like this are seen every month. A misleading front page headline needs to be corrected by an equal front page size apology with financial penalty. (Versi, 2016) 9/11 9/11 a major cause of rise in islamophobia in west. Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City were attacked by planes.
On 11 September on a clear Tuesday morning an American Airlines Boeing 767 loaded with 20,000 gallons of jet fuel crashed into the north tower of World Trade Center in New York City. There was a burning hole on 80th floor of 110-story tall building. After 18 minutes second Boeing 767-United Airlines Flight 175 came and destroyed the building. Almost 3000 people were killed in this attack. (Templeton & Lumley, 2017) These attacks started a new phase of propaganda against muslims and islam. The terrorists who did these attacks were financed by Al-Qaeda and its head was Usama Bin Laden. Osama Bin Laden himself claims that Al-Qaeda was responsible for these attacks of 9/11. (Bergen, 2006) This attack started a new phase of violation against muslims. This incident totally changed life of muslims living in America. They were afraid to go out. They changed their way of dressing. They stopped going to mosques as some of them were burnt by someone and muslims did not felt them secure. Many muslims reduced their social circle because of the fear that was spread in muslims. (Ainslie, 2015) Hate Crime Incidents against muslims boosted after 9/11. According to FBI ( Federal Bureau Investigation) these incidents raised from 28 to 481. (Ser, 2016) Islamophobes Islamophobe is a non-muslim who knows more than they are supposed to know about islam. Islamophobes are people who believe that muslims who are believers of islam promote violence, terrorism, barbarism, crimes, persecution, women oppression, injustice. They perceive muslims as humans full of evil desires. They think that muslims are bound by the explanations and instructions of their prophet Muhammad and other pious ancestors. Muslims have fallacious concepts from inauthentic, unethical source. And they do not consider authentic references on same subject that are from their anti-islamic policies agendas. These islamophobes are totally against muslims without knowing anything except considering them terrorists. They associate wrong acts of few deviate muslims with whole religion of islam. While ignore wrongful acts done by followers of other religion (Nasr & Tair, 2016).
West Attacking Islam Acts of violence in Europe undertaken by muslims due to political reasons are less than 2 percent. Yet media narrates it as “Radical Islam” or “Radicalised Muslims” Muslims who deny drinking and music, practice traditional values are considered as violent class by west. Muslims saying “Inshallah” is considered as a red flag while non-muslims also say the same meaning “God Willing”. (Nomani, 2013) UK is also attacking muslims in many direct and indirect ways. Famous academies and public officials claim that growing beards, wearing hijab or getting close to those who believe in islam is termed as ‘potential terrorism’. (Hooper, 2015) American government has been undertaking surveillance of American muslims of muslim community leaders, mosques and muslim universities. They have started surveillance under heading of “Countering Violent Extremists”. This CVE also faced a lot criticism because it was making muslims a suspect community. Amrican Muslims are said that they cannot express their political radical views as what is radical considered terrorist. European muslims are not living a peaceful and safe life. Muslims of France live in tension and anxiety. They do not have a feeling of security.
Increasing Discriminatory Behavior Muslims are not treated same as other people in west. After 21th century they are treated differently. A recent statement of Trump that Muslims should not be allowed to enter America can show their haterd towards muslims. And this hatred results in discrimination. Discrimination, racism and prejudice are terms that can define behavior of non muslims towards muslims. A muslim is perceived as terrorist in west. Islam promotes violence than other faiths is the belief of almost every western. Muslims have been called offensive names, singled out by air ports. They are called out by law enforcement officials. Many muslims have been abused, threatened and physically attacked. Youth of muslim immigrants belonging from different ethical, linguistical and social norms when face this kind of illogical violent discrimination suffer from many emotional breakdowns. Women wearing headscarves is also very controversial in west. A headscarf is considered as oppression. Many countries oppose wearing headscarves of women. Non muslims’ attitude towards women with headscarves is more worse than other muslims. In some states of german teachers were banned to wear women headscarves in 2003 and this ban was lifted in 2015 thinking that it is incompatible with religious liberty. (Burke, 2016)
The muslim population in Britain increase manifolds in last years. It is almost 55%, 3.5 million of total Britain population of 6.4 million. In European Union muslims are the third largest population in Britain, after France and then Germany. (Kern, The Islamization of Britain in 2016, 2017) Following graph shows the division of muslim households in Britain Muslims’ Attitude Towards Britishers British muslim community is becoming a nation within a nation. Attitude of muslims towards britishers is also not so good. Many British muslims have sympathies with sucide bombers and terrorism. They do not even complain police if they see any of muslim community associating with terrorists. Some british muslims also avoid entering house of non muslims.(Kern, 2016)
Pressure On European Muslims Anti Muslim sentiment has been increasing rapidly from years. Islam has become the least favorable religion of all. Mosques are on target. Mosques on target Muslims do not feel secure in mosques and some of them have started avoiding entering mosques. 78 incidents of attacking mosques were seen this year. And this hatred boosted after incident of 9/11. Individuals on target Not only muslim institutions are targeted muslims themselves are not spared. Muslim individuals and communities have been facing brutalism. Cases of muslim murders can been seen easily and they aren’t even provided justice as those of non muslims. During 2015 there were total 174 cases registered for violence against muslims. These included murder, physical assaults, threats to individuals and institutions, destroying property and vandalism, bombings and shootings and many other cases.
As in every field of life muslims face biased behavior. Career opportunities for muslims are also limited in west. A muslim is less likely to have a job with same qualifications and experience as of non muslim. Acoording to a study muslims are 13% less likely to have a job even if they are fulfilling requirements.
West is afraid of islam and that’s why they prevent islam for spreading. Public schools are not allowed to teach islam in syllabus. In some states many parents also protested again textbooks teaching islam. Even muslim madrasas is also on target of west. Uncomfortable Environment for Muslim Students Muslim students in west also face the same situation. The environment in which they have to study is full of hatred against them. They often are asked questions “Why are you Muslims Terrorists” and they feel helpless as majority of their classmates are against muslims. They suffer from anxiety and never feel comfortable in that environment. (Frequently Asked Questions About Islamophobia)
Extremism in literal terms refers to the act of being extreme in any sense but specifically religion. Extremism is a complex phenomenon and is increasing day by day all over the world. Extremism is actually any act of religious faith extremism done to cause harm to people. Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity all are subjected to extremism but in our context we’re discussing Islamic extremism. Extremism is nowadays taken in religious or political sense. (Extremism, 2017)
These are certain acts done by Muslims thinking that this will earn them great reward on the Day of Judgment in the form of Jinnah. Although extremism is frowned upon, even forbidden by Islam. (Islamic Extremism) Extremist acts Extremists often display their extremism in the form of violent acts. These acts include terrorist attacks, threat of violence against public, forming of extremist groups and protesting against the government for the change of a law, as opposition to the actions taken by government or by simply protesting and creating violence. (PERLIGER, 2017) Extremism in Muslims Extremism in the Muslim community is usually in the firm of extremist or terrorist groups.
There are many groups these days including:
Results of Islamic extremism Islamic extremism has had very drastic effects on the Muslims worldwide. Every nation has started hating Muslim nations and they’re being all viewed as terrorists. Many countries refuse to give Muslims their VISA. Moreover, Islam has been made a global threat. Because of some specific violent communities entire muslim religion is being abused by whole world. Muslims living in west are no longer safe. They do not enjoy same liberty as non muslims are enjoying. Muslims living in west are not even provided same justice as those of non muslims. They do not have same career opportunities as those of non muslims. They have a sense of insecurity. Muslims are becoming socially isolated because of harsh behave of non muslims. This violent behavior towards muslims is just because of some extremist communities. This threat to muslim world should be stopped by abolishing these extremist communities. (The world’s muslims, 2013)
Forces fueling Islamic wars Islamic terrorism wars are being motivated more and more each day and the agents for this motivation are:
Citizenship issues Out of 57 Muslim countries only two countries accept fellow Muslim country immigrants. These two countries are Malaysia and turkey. To earn a decent livelihood many Muslims migrate to other neighboring countries but because of the phenomenon of islamophobia no country is willing to accept them, thus they turn to terrorist acts and violence. Identity based frameworks Muslims all over the world are viewed with an angle of hatred. No matter where a person belongs, where he works, how he behaves as long as he’s a Muslim he will be judged by the society for being a Muslim. Whether it is his fault or not whether he is even an extremist or not he will be judged on the name of Islam. Their appearance matters, whether it is their fault or not. In many cases we can see that non muslims are ignored on same fault while muslims face severe hatred and serious investigation.
Religious motivation Islam and hadith, the teachings of the prophet Mohammad and the teachings of the holy Quran are also subjected to racism. People have started considering them as a matter of gender inequality, racism, extremism etc. Muslims all over the world are oppressed because of following the teachings of Islam it’s not that they’re harming anybody or something it’s just the fact that people consider them bad without actually knowing them. These facts have created a sense of insecurity for Muslims and forced them to violence. Solution to these problems These problems related to islamophobia needs a permanent solution. This can be solved by Education. Education that is not biased. Even today world is educated but this education is biased. They are not providing education that promotes equality. Fair treatment is not practiced in world. And this discrimination is mostly with muslims. A muslim is perceived as aperson at fault. By providing fair education and promoting liberalism in such a way that if a person commits a wrongful act whole community should not be blamed, we can get rid of this phobia. Specific communities promoting extremism should be abolished . As they are playing vital role in spreading hatred against muslim world. These specific groups brutally kill innocent people in name of islam , hence making whole world against islam. These groups should be finished and the forces who facilitate these groups should also bring to eye. These Groups also get financial aid from some forces. Until these conspiracies are not stopped we cannot end this fear of islam. Muslims also need to be a bit liberal. Educating muslims can also be very helpful to overcome this serious problem.
And all of it, the most important thing is the stereotypes about muslims should be eradicted from minds of non uslims that “All Muslims are Terrorists”.
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