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Kinetic Theory is a description of the properties of atomic particles in different states such as solids, liquids, and gas. In the various states, the atoms have a different energy level and the movements of the particles also including the distance.
The state of the sample e.g water can be changed through the change of temperature. This is because energy is being applied in the atoms causing the changes, Observation such as the volume, temperature and the pressure can be measured. The atoms get stronger to break when it’s close as they have intermolecular forces of attraction.
The atoms in the solid state are restricted and don’t have any space to freely move. In the solid state it requires the most energy to break the intermolecular force this is because the atoms are close together and the attraction is strong enough to be in a fixed position. Since there is no space between the particles, it cannot be compressed meaning it cannot become a smaller size than it is. The particles have no space to move therefore if energy is applied it has to start small. So if energy is being applied due to tight space the atoms start to vibrate next to its neighbors in the same regular position. In order for the state to change more energy is required meaning the temperature has to be increased. The vibration of the atoms becomes stronger as the heat energy is transferred to kinetic energy which breaks down the structure of atoms. The solid start to change its form into a liquid which is called melting as the intermolecular forces are breaking and becoming weaker. Depending on the solidified substance, the rate of reaction varies for eg.
The atoms in the liquid state can now move around freely while bumping to one another within the volume of the container due to the increase of kinetic energy. The intermolecular force is weaker than the previous state but still holds the atoms together in the liquid substance. In the liquid state, it can be compressed by decreasing the energy as they are not tightly together compared to the solidified state. If the liquid state decreases temperature and becomes solid the reaction is called freezing. This is when the particles lose energy meaning it will stop moving and be in a stable arrangement. When the temperature drops, it is losing energy and the intermolecular force attracts the atoms together. Before the gas occurs the s evaporation of the liquid starts. It is when different atoms have a variety of energy level and are able to escape from the liquid solution/container to form gas e.g. water evaporating into the air. The molecules have enough energy to break the intermolecular between them. During the evaporation, heat is constantly supplied as heat (high energy molecules) is being released from the liquid to aie meaning the liquid cools. Evaporation occurs on the surface of the liquid and can depend on the substance and the situation. For example, If the surface area of the liquid substance is large the rate of evaporation increases as there is more probability of particles escaping.
The atoms in the gaseous state are entirely freely moving without any restriction meaning that their distance from the previous states are the furthest. There is no attraction force between them and are highly energetic atoms from the increase of the temperature. In order for as to turn liquid, we have to decrease its kinetic energy meaning the particles will stop moving quickly, not colliding with each particle and no freely particles going out of the substance. This process is called condensation and it has the same temperature as boiling which is when the substance above is gas and below is liquid. In order to change the gas substance into solid substance without going through the liquid state, we must take its kinetic energy from rapid free moving particles into regular restricted vibrating particles. This process is called Deposition. For example, when a frost forms on the leaf the thermal energy needs to lose gas in order for deposition to occur. The water vapor in the air which surrounds the leaf is cold enough it loses thermal energy but the water vapor will not condense altogether if there is no way to remove latent heat. The supercooled water vapor immediately condenses when the lead is introduced. At this point is gone past the freezing point as allowing to change into a solid.
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