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Language learning strategies are methods that facilitate a language learning task. Strategies are goal-driven procedures and most often conscious techniques. Learning strategies usually used especially in the beginning of a new language task. The more learning strategy becomes familiar the more language student gains automaticity, but most learners will be able to more successful if they awareness about strategies.
The first researches on language learning strategies in mother language contexts has showed that students couldn’t transfer strategies to new tasks and that according to last studies, teachers have significantly increased the transfer rate if they help their learners to understand their learning processes and metacognition. (Belmont, Butterfield, & Ferretti, 1982:29-45)
Chamot (2004) defines learning strategies as conscious thoughts and actions of learners to succeed a learning goal. Knowing their thinking and their own learning styles language learners will have a good comprehension of what a task brings. The ability to arrange the strategies that best meet both the task demands and their own learning strengths helps to become a strategic language learner. By exploring different learning strategies, students can experiment and evaluate and eventually choose their own effective strategies.
Chamot also says that teaching about language learning strategies begins with making students be aware of language learning strategies and which strategies they already have. Thanks to this awareness about strategies, students can think about their own strategies and learning process. Teachers first reveal students’ former knowledge about strategies and it helps students to define their actual language learning strategies for different activities and tasks. In order to enhance their students’ motivation, Teachers also discover their students’ beliefs about language learning about learning, effort, intelligence, or some strategic techniques.
Strategy instruction begins with helping students become aware of what strategies are and which strategies they are already using. This consciousness-raising helps students begin to think about their own learning processes. Teachers first elicit students? prior knowledge about strategies and then help them identify their current learning strategies for different tasks. In order to address the issue of motivation, they also explore their students’ beliefs about learning and whether they believe that learning occurs as a result of effort, native intelligence, luck, or the systematic application of strategic techniques.
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