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Metacognition History: What is Beyond The Cognition

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I chose to write about metacognition for this essay as it is the one of the most significant discussions in the era of learning and teaching. This discussion is Metacognitive Strategy that plays a key role in learning the second or foreign language. The meaning of Metacognition is cognition about cognition or thinking about thinking and also knowing about knowing, mostly it helps you to be aware of one’s awareness and higher-order thinking skills. The root word of this this term is meta, and it means ‘beyond’ Metacognition. It can have many forms; the different forms include knowledge about when and how to use specific strategies for learning or for problem-solving. Metacognition generally have two components: have a high knowledge about cognition and rules of cognition.

Learning styles and strategies are components which help us to determine how well students learn a second or foreign language. Also language acquisition is affected positively by learning strategy. In terms of forms and functions, it may improve learners’ learning in language comprehension and production. Graham in his study mentioned that 40-50% of adult communication time is spent in listening. Listening is an important part in the second language acquisition process. Moreover, Chamot determined that instead of considering listening as a single process, it is better to consider it as related processes of sound recognition, perception of intonation patterns, and interpretation of relevance of what is being mentioned about the topic. He mentioned that, while listening to a second or foreign language, learners use strategies consciously and in their first language they use them unconsciously.

The metacognition history go back to two studies by the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC): On the Soul and the Parva Naturalia. This higher-level cognition was presented mostly by American developmental psychologist Flavell as metacognition. He firstly contended that metacognition includes both monitoring and regulation and is intentional. In any sort of psychological exchange with the human or non-human environment, an assortment of data preparing activities may continue. In addition to other things, Metacognition alludes to the active observing and resulting regulation and coordination of these procedures in connection to the cognitive objects or information on which they bear, usually in administration of some concrete objective or goal.

Also Flavell defined metacognition as knowledge about cognition and control of cognition. For example, a person is engaging in metacognition if he notices that he is having more trouble learning A than B, or if it strikes her that she should double-check C before accepting it as fact, Flavell. Andreas Demetriou’s theory (one of the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development) used the term hypercognition to refer to self- monitoring, self-representation, and self-regulation processes, which are regarded as integral components of the human mind. Moreover, with his colleagues, he showed that these processes participate in general intelligence, together with processing efficiency and reasoning, which have traditionally been considered to compose fluid intelligence. 

In conclusion, Flavell made a major work in developing metacognition concept and he defined as knowledge about cognition and control of cognition. It also can be defined as the process. The process  of thinking about one’s own thinking. Metacognition is needed for effective learning, as it allows individuals to understand their own strengths and weaknesses, and to adapt their learning strategies accordingly. Research has shown that individuals who use metacognitive strategies tend to be more successful learners. They are better able to understand and remember new information, and they are better able to solve problems and make decisions. 

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Metacognition History: What is Beyond the Cognition. (2023, February 11). GradesFixer. Retrieved March 25, 2023, from
“Metacognition History: What is Beyond the Cognition.” GradesFixer, 11 Feb. 2023,
Metacognition History: What is Beyond the Cognition. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 25 Mar. 2023].
Metacognition History: What is Beyond the Cognition [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2023 Feb 11 [cited 2023 Mar 25]. Available from:
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